Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Natural Diasters

1.1. Tropical Storms

1.1.1. Tropical storms form over warm ocean waters. When the sun evaporates the water, cold air get caught in the current at the bottom of the hot air, making the hot air spiral. The cold air is then evaporated, making more hot air, while more cold air comes, making the hot air spin faster and faster.

1.1.1.1. Hurricanes

1.1.1.1.1. Forms on the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean around the middle of America(Mexico, USA)

1.1.1.1.2. Affects Mexico, and the east side of USA

1.1.1.1.3. Might go west on the pacific Ocean and affect Oceania and East Asia

1.1.1.2. Cyclones

1.1.1.2.1. Forms on the Indian Ocean and the west part of the Pacific Ocean

1.1.1.2.2. Affects South Asia(India,Pakistan, Thailand), Southeast Africa(Madagascar, Mozambique), Northeast of New Zealand and west, north, and east of Australia.

1.1.1.3. Typhoons

1.1.1.3.1. Forms on the west of the Pacific Ocean.

1.1.1.3.2. Affects East Asia(Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam)

1.1.2. Uses the Saffir-Simpson Scale

1.2. Tornadoes

1.2.1. Tornadoes form on land. Warm air from the ground rises up, and cold air from they sky goes down like a pillar. The hot air spirals around the cold air, and a tornado forms. The cold air gets to the bottom and gets heated, becoming hot air that makes the hot air on the outside spin faster as more cold air comes.

1.2.1.1. Forms on land, mostly the Southeastern part of USA(tornado alley)

1.2.1.1.1. Affects every country in the world

1.2.2. Uses the Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale

1.3. Tsunamis

1.3.1. A tsunami is a big wave of water that is made when an earthquake shakes the water. It is not made by high winds or the pull of the moon.

1.3.1.1. Forms on water

1.3.1.2. Makes tidal waves, allowing scientists to warn civilians

1.4. Earthquakes

1.4.1. Earthquakes shake the earth, they are created when 2 tectonic plate slip against each other. The rest of the plate moves when the front stops, creating pressure. When they eventually slip past each other,the pressure is realeased and sends seismic waves that shake the earth

1.4.2. Measured by seismographs

2. Conditions for Agriculture

2.1. Effect of Climate

2.1.1. The climate in the area allows the plants to grow or die. If the temperature is too cold or too hot, it's bad for most plants. Some areas have dry seasons, which are bad for plants and crops. Good suitable places for farming are Europe and some parts of Africa.

2.2. Effect of Soil

2.2.1. The soil where the crops are grown needs to be thick and dark because thicker and darker soil has more soil fertility. Some places that has good soil are Southeast USA, East Australia, and South Europe.

2.3. Effect of Natural Vegetation

2.3.1. Natural Vegetation leaves organic matter that decomposers decompose. After decomposing, the nutrients will go back to the natural vegetation and also the crops that grow there, making the crops grow faster and have a better quality. Natural vegetation can't always support the farming that is done, that's why shifting cultivators move on after a wihle.

3. Effect Of Climate

3.1. Effect of Lattitude

3.1.1. Since the Earth is round, the sun's rays are more concentrated on the center of the Earth

3.1.1.1. Polar Climate

3.1.1.1.1. North of the equator, polar climates are very cold because the sun's rays are scattered.

3.1.1.2. Tropical Climate

3.1.1.2.1. Very hot because it's right on or close to the equator, lot's of precipitation.

3.1.1.3. Temperate Climate

3.1.1.3.1. Switched seasons, moderate temperatures, between the south pole and the equator.

3.2. Effect of Moving Air

3.2.1. Hot air is light and goes upwards while cold air is dense and heavy and goes downwards, causing climate changes. The sun warms the air near the equator and the air moves away from the equator, sucking up all the moisture near the equator.

3.2.1.1. Desert Climate

3.2.1.1.1. Very dry and forms when the moisture is sucked out and gets dry air. Clouds and precipitation is rare.

3.3. Effect of Water Bodies

3.3.1. Onshore winds cool people off, and water bodies make more precipitation.

3.3.1.1. Maritime Climate

3.3.1.1.1. Close to a water body, cooled by the water body and has warm summers and cool winters. A lot of precipitation because water from the water body evaporates and drops down close to it.

3.3.1.2. Continental Climate

3.3.1.2.1. Far inland, away from water bodies. Very hot summers and cold winters, not a lot of precipitation.

3.4. Effect of Mountains

3.4.1. The elevation of places change the climate. The higher you are, the colder it gets because there is less oxygen molecules that trap solar heat. Back side of a mountain would be cooler than the side that faces the sun.

3.4.1.1. Mountain Climate

3.4.1.1.1. The higher a place is, the colder. If it's facing the sun, it'll be hot, if it's behind the mountain, it'll be cooler.

3.5. Effect of Ocean Currents

3.5.1. Warm water flows along the coastlines while cold water flows towards the centre. Places close to coastlines are warmer than places in the middle of an ocean.

4. Landform Patterns

4.1. Volcanoes

4.1.1. Formed when magma finds its way up to the surface of the Earth, usually through cracks or faults. The magma pushes rock and/or cinder up with it, forming volcanoes. Contains igneous and metamorphic rock

4.1.1.1. Composite Cone

4.1.1.1.1. A volcano made of layers of cinder and magma

4.1.1.2. Cinder Cone

4.1.1.2.1. A volcano made of Cinder

4.1.1.3. Shield Cone

4.1.1.3.1. A volcano made of magma

4.1.1.4. Hawaiian volcanoes

4.1.1.5. Pacific Ring of Fire

4.1.1.6. Mid-Atlantic Ridge

4.1.1.7. Sierra Madre

4.2. Shield Regions

4.2.1. Formed when volcanoes and water shapes rock. Contains igneous and metamorphic rock

4.2.1.1. The Canadian Shield

4.3. Plains and Lowlands

4.3.1. Formed when sediment from shield regions moved into seas, then solidified into sedimentary rock. Plains and lowlands formed around the solidified rock.

4.3.1.1. Great Plains

4.3.1.2. St. Lawrence Lowlands

4.4. Fold Mountains

4.4.1. Formed when a tectonic plate goes under another, pushing up sedimentary rock from ocean basins, forming mountains with folds. Contains sedimentary rocks and a few areas of metamorphic rock.

4.4.1.1. Appalachian Mountains

4.4.1.2. Rocky Mountains