Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Landform Patterns

1.1. Active Volcanoes

1.1.1. Volcanoes consist of parts such as the crust, the pipe, the magma, and the mantle.

1.1.2. When volcanoes erupt, they would usually spew out gas and ash.

1.1.3. When magma is pushed upwards by pressure, it will make the volcano grow taller and taller over time.

1.1.4. There are 2 types of volcanoes, the composite cone and the shield cone. The composite cone is a volcano made up of layers of cinders and magma. The shield cone is made by magma and only magma.

1.2. Shield Regions

1.2.1. When Pangaea was once the countries, old shield regions were scattered around. These were created by Volcanic activity a very very long time ago (Billions of years ago).

1.2.2. Shield regions are made by igneous rock (solid magma). Then heat and pressure made the rocks start to form which caused it to turn into metamorphic rocks.

1.2.3. When Pangeae broke off into the countries and continents, so did the shield regions. Now, the shield regions are worn down because of the billions of years of forces e.g winds or water.

1.3. Fold Mountains

1.3.1. Fold mountains, happen over millions of years and can happen anywhere.

1.3.2. A chain of fold mountains are located from North America to South America, which then runs till it gets to Antarctica.

1.3.3. Fold mountains are formed by tectonic plates pushing against each other to make sedimentary rock go up causing a crumpling effect.

1.4. Plains and Lowlands

1.4.1. When the shield regions eroded, the materials were carried down by the lakes which then over a great amount of time, started to accumulate. Then, the accumulated sediment (eroded material) then became think layers which slowly turned into sedimentary rock. After that, new land was made because of it which are called plains and lowlands.

1.4.2. Plains are areas where there are layers of sedimentary rock that is above it. For example, the great plains in North America, is an example of a plain.

1.4.3. Lowlands are like plains but are along the coastlines of countries. For example, the great lakes are an example of a lowland because it is along the coastline of a country.

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Tropical storms

2.1.1. These storms are created by the slightest disturbance in the environment. These are called tropical disturbances because it would cause a tropical storm.

2.1.2. Every single tropical storm is started in the warm ocean waters where the sun would gradually make the hot are rise. This causes the cool air to be able to start swirling around the hot air which gradually makes it larger and stronger.

2.1.3. Tropical storms consist of Hurricanes, Cyclones, Typhoons and Blizzards. The one thing they have in common is that they all are formed on water instead of land.

2.2. Tornadoes

2.2.1. Tornadoes are most likely to happen in the spring and summer seasons of the year.

2.2.2. They are formed on land and not like tropical storms where they all form on water.

2.2.3. Tornadoes would also drop down from cumulonimbus clouds which are slowly formed.

2.2.4. A common place where tornadoes form would be a place called the tornado alley which is a place in the us.

2.2.5. Tornadoes can be measured by the Fujita scale which would use the scales of F1- F5, F5 being the strongest and the most destructive. Also, the doppler radar is used by scientist to measure the about of power a tornado has.

2.3. Tsunamis

2.3.1. Tsunamis are a special type of wave that could be caused by ocean surges , massive landslides or even an ice block breaking into the water.

2.3.2. Tsunamis are different because they are mostly caused by an earth quake that shakes the ocean floor.

2.3.3. That is why, when an earthquake happens, it will occasionally trigger a tsunami.

2.4. EarthQuakes

2.4.1. Earthquakes in fact happen about every 3 minuets. However, these earthquakes are so minuscule that you can't feel it. Whilst, larger and stronger earthquakes can also do significant amounts of damage to the surrounding environment.

2.4.2. Earthquakes are caused the the movement of tectonic plates (the crust of the earth). In further detail, the epicentre is the breaking post of which the plates have a sudden movement under water, causing the water to form a wave.

3. Climates

3.1. The Effect of Latitude

3.1.1. The sun hits the earth at different lengths. Latitude is a big factor in the Earth's climate. Since the Earth is in a curved sphere shape, the suns rays would hit the place most closest, the most strongest This means that places near the equator would be extremely hot because it is closest to the suns rays. Whilst, the north and south poles are the farthest, which results in the coldest points.

3.1.2. Since, Polar climates are the coldest climates because it get the least of the suns rays, it would have extreme winters and cool summers.

3.1.3. Tropical Climates are very near the equator, if not on it, so it takes most of the suns rays, therefore, it would be hot all seasons with a lot of moisture.

3.1.4. Lastly, The temperate climate is located in between the equator and the poles, so it would take a moderate amount of the suns rays. Therefore, the temperature in a temperate climate, lets say Australia would be moderate all year round.

3.2. The Effect Of Moving Air

3.2.1. Air is quite special, it is an important factor in the Earth's climate because when the suns rays hit, the warm air rises. This causes the warm air to float up and cool down. Once it is cooled it comes back down as cold air. This air would be very dry.

3.2.2. Since deserts are very close the the equators, it would be extremely hot. However, the dryness does not come from the suns rays. When the cool air comes back down, it is very dry, so that is why it would affect the rainfall in the desert.

3.3. The Effect of Water Bodies

3.3.1. Ocean bodies are also a great factor in the Earth's climate. Places near a large body of water would often have moderate temperature and weather. Whilst, places far from large bodies of water, would have more extreme weathers.

3.3.2. When a place is near a large body of water, they have what is called a maritime climate with warm summers and cool winters.

3.3.3. When a place is far from a large body of water, they have what is called a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters.

3.4. The Effects of Mountains

3.4.1. At the top of mountains, climate in the Earth would start to change. This is because when you are at high altitudes, there would be less oxygen molecules which means that it can't trap much heat.

3.4.2. At the back of mountains, it would very usually be colder then the front. This is because not much of the sun's rays are hitting the land there, so that is why it would be colder.

3.4.3. A mountain climate is usually colder than places in the lower altitudes with heavy rainfall if near coastlines.

3.5. The Effects of Ocean Currents

3.5.1. Ocean Currents is the last factor of the Earth's climate. Ocean currents bring the warm waters from the equator um to the polars. Then the cold waters from the polars would come back down the the equator. Thus making it cooler.

4. Agriculture

4.1. The Effects of Climate

4.1.1. Climate is a huge factor for the growth of vegetation. The climate for the best soils would be climates with precipitation and sunlight yet with wind and a little cool. That would be an ideal climate. However, if it was Tropical climates, the soil and the vegetation won't be very good because there is too much sunlight, and it is dry all year, so it won't be a great climate to start a farm. Places like south-east of the states could be ideal for growth because it is wet all year whilst also warm.

4.2. The Effects of Soil

4.2.1. Soils is also a gigantic factor in the growth of plants and vegetation Soils is most fertile when the top is darker and thicker in colour and feel. In the tundra's, the soils have permafrost, which allows only small shrubs to be grown in that kind of climate

4.2.2. A soil profile is a cross-section between the upper layers of the soil to the bottom layers (the Earth's crust).

4.3. The Effects of Natural vegetation

4.3.1. Natural vegetation would usually be cleared away for roads and buildings. Farmers and old aboriginal people would use these natural vegetation to their advantage. They would use this to predict the fertility of the soil.

4.3.2. Farmers sometimes use a method called shifting cultivation which means that it is temporary farming because heavy rainfall washes all the nutrients away.