Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Occur when two plates are pushed together, or dragged beside each other.

2. Natural Disasters

2.1. Tsunami

2.1.1. Mistakenly referred to as a tidal wave or a storm surge

2.1.2. Caused when an earthquake disturbs the ocean floor itself

2.1.3. Leaves a trail of destruction

2.2. Earthquake

2.2.1. Every 3 minutes it shakes the planet/180 000 times a year

2.2.2. Large amount of energy discharged from epicenter (where earth's plates move abruptly)

2.2.3. Can cause serious damage

2.2.4. Strength measured by a 10-point scale called the Richter Scale)

2.2.5. Caused when plates are ripped apart, and moving around everywhere beside other plates

2.3. Tornado

2.3.1. Forms when humid air rises, spirals around a cold air column, and forms a vortex

2.3.2. Measured by Fujita Scale

2.3.3. Season of tornadoes span from spring and summer

2.3.4. Affects eastern North America, including Canada

2.3.5. Global warming may cause more severe tornadoes

2.3.6. Earth's fastest-moving natural phenomena

2.4. Tropical Storms

2.4.1. Hurricanes

2.4.1.1. Originate off the coast of Africa if they affect the Caribbean and eastern North America

2.4.2. Cyclones

2.4.2.1. Form over the Indian Ocean

2.4.2.2. Affects south Asia, south Africa, and western and eastern Australia

2.4.3. Typhoons

2.4.3.1. Start in the Pacific Ocean

2.4.3.2. Affects east Asia

2.4.4. Begin in oceans on each side if equator

2.4.5. Originate from warm ocean waters

2.4.6. Move outward from warm ocean regions

2.4.7. Form when warm air rises and is replaced by cold air, then blows inward in a spiral, which creates a tropical disturbance

2.4.8. Power is measured by Saffir-Simpson Scale

2.4.8.1. Indicates wind speed and storm surge

2.4.9. Sun's energy is responsible for tropical storms

3. Landform Patterns

3.1. Volcanoes

3.1.1. Composite Cone

3.1.1.1. Volcano made of cinder and magama

3.1.2. Shield Cone

3.1.2.1. Volcano made entirely of magma

3.1.3. Magma pushes upward because of pressure from below which causes the volcano to mount higher

3.1.4. Occur along edges of plates

3.1.5. The Pacific Ring of Fire

3.1.5.1. Active volcanos surround the Pacific in a circular pattern

3.1.6. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge

3.1.6.1. Volcanic islands in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean in a line

3.1.6.2. Where major plates are moving apart

3.1.7. Biggest known blast is Krakatoa

3.2. Shields

3.2.1. Created by widespread volcanic activity

3.2.2. Made up of igneous and metamorphic rock

3.2.3. Scattered across the earth when Pangaea broke apart

3.2.4. Core of the continents

3.2.5. Example. Canadian Shield

3.3. Plains and Lowlands

3.3.1. Made of sedimentary rock

3.3.2. Wide areas of even land

3.3.3. Lowlands are located near coastlines (Great Lakes)

3.3.4. Example 1. Plains: Great Plains

3.3.5. Example 2. Lowlands: St. Lawrence Lowlands

3.4. Fold Mountains

3.4.1. Fold Mountain Systems

3.4.1.1. Chains cross the continents in bands

3.4.1.1.1. North America to South America and continues into Antarctica

3.4.2. Folds may snap and cause earthquakes and the pressure from this has created metamorphic rock in some areas

3.4.3. Large broken ridges where plates collide

3.4.4. Patterns form ecozones

3.4.5. Divide the flow of rivers

3.4.6. Made of sedimentary rock

3.4.7. Form when two plates move towards each other and bend up layers of sedimentary rock

3.4.8. Example. Sierra Madre

3.4.9. Example. Appalachian Mountains

3.4.10. Example. Rocky Mountains

3.5. **EXTRA** Plate Tectonics

3.5.1. Theory that all continents were joined together before but then slowly started to drift apart are still drifting now

4. Agricultural Patterns

4.1. Effect of Climate

4.1.1. Big part on creating soil

4.1.2. For plants and animals to be able to flourish you need a favourable climate

4.1.3. Soil made of eroded sediments created by water, ice and wind

4.1.4. Climate causes the forces (Water, ice, and wind) that results in soil

4.2. Effect of Soil

4.2.1. Soil has different levels from top to bottom

4.2.2. Coloured horizontal bands mark a soil profile

4.2.3. Soil is greater in productivity if the upper soil layers are darker and thicker

4.2.4. Polar and continental climates have permafrost, which is permanently frozen ground

4.2.4.1. Limited depth for plant roots to reach

4.2.4.2. Mostly low shrubs, and summer flowers grow in these tundra regions

4.3. Effect of Natural Vegetation

4.3.1. Trees, grasses, and other plants originally found in an area are all examples of natural vegetation

4.3.2. Usually cleared away for roads, buildings, and farms

4.3.3. Natural vegetation has important effect on soil productivity

4.3.3.1. Leaves, grasses, and needles which decompose help keep soil fertile

4.3.3.2. Needles of coniferous trees are acidic so there is less productivity for soil

4.3.4. Shifting cultivation is used with tropical soils due to the amount of nutrients in the soil

4.3.4.1. Type of temporary farming pursued in the rainforest

5. Effect of Climate

5.1. Effect of Latitude

5.1.1. Places at different latitudes get very different temperature

5.1.2. Hotter near the equator, and colder near the poles because of the concentration of the sun's rays

5.1.3. Sunlight hits earth at different angles

5.1.4. Polar Climate

5.1.4.1. Rays scattered when they hit earth at a sharp angle

5.1.4.2. Severe winters and cool summers

5.1.4.3. Example. Verkhoyansk, Siberia

5.1.5. Tropical Climate

5.1.5.1. Rays hit from directly above

5.1.5.2. Hot temperatures in every season and a lot of moisture (Basically it's hot and wet)

5.1.5.3. Example. Singapore, and Quito, Equador

5.1.6. Temperate Climate

5.1.6.1. Rays strike at slight angle

5.1.6.2. Moderate temperature conditions year round

5.1.6.3. Example. Perth, Australia

5.2. Effect of Moving Air

5.2.1. Heated air rises, cools, water droplets form clouds, and rains

5.2.2. Warm air is light and rises

5.2.3. Cool air is dense and sinks

5.2.4. Equator and the Tropics have different air pressures (measure of density of air)

5.2.5. Desert Climate

5.2.5.1. Rains at the equator, air moves toward the North and South Pole, cools slowly, sinks as it gets to the Tropics, surface winds return to the equator. (Air is very dry, rare precipitation

5.2.5.2. Very dry weather conditions

5.2.5.3. Example. Cairo and Port Nolloth

5.3. Effect of Water Bodies

5.3.1. Make temperatures more comfortable

5.3.2. Maritime Climate

5.3.2.1. Places near large water bodies

5.3.2.2. Plenty of precipitation if winds blow onshore

5.3.2.3. Warm summers and cool winters

5.3.2.4. Example. Vancouver, Canada

5.3.3. Continental Climate

5.3.3.1. Places located farther from the coast and further inland

5.3.3.2. Drier than maritime

5.3.3.3. Hot summers and cold winters

5.3.3.4. Example. Winnipeg, Canada

5.4. Effect of Mountains

5.4.1. Less oxygen and molecules higher up so it is colder

5.4.2. Colder at high latitudes than lower latitudes

5.4.3. It will be warmer on the side of the mountain the sun is compared to the other side of the mountain that does not receive the sun's rays

5.4.4. Cooler than places at lower altitudes; often with heavy precipitation if located near coastlines

5.4.5. Example. Manaus, Brazil

5.5. Effect of Ocean Currents

5.5.1. Warm currents flows away from equator along the continent's coastlines and cold currents flow toward the equator from polar oceans

5.5.2. Affect coastal temperatures

5.5.3. Narvik, Norway is affected by the warm current from the Gulf Stream

5.5.4. Nain, Canada is cooled by the Labrador Current