Grunig Excellence

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Grunig Excellence by Mind Map: Grunig Excellence

1. Excellence 01: Overview

1.1. focus is on people who perform communication duties

1.1.1. note thinking broader than pr or hr or marketing or advertising

1.1.2. excellence in communication management for organizations

1.2. three key questions that need research based answers so that practical decisions can be made about allocating resources

1.2.1. when and why are the efforts of communication practitioners effective?

1.2.2. how do organizations benefit from effective public relations?

1.2.3. why do organizations practice public relations in different ways?

1.3. The IABC Excellence Project

1.3.1. literature review of relevant research from communications public relations management organizational pyschology sociology social psychology cognitive psychology feminist studies political science decision making culture / anthropology

1.3.2. first general theory of public relations to be tested in field research having a theory provides a way to do deductive research, to test hypotheses and refine research based knowledge

1.4. The sections of the book

1.4.1. How does communication affect the achievement of organizational objectives? What makes an organization effective? How must public relations be practiced to contribute the most to organizational effectiveness? How should the communication function be organized for it to contribute the most to organizational effectiveness? strategic management of individual communication programs: the program level of analysis

1.4.2. Excellence must also be considered along with effectiveness excellence provides a normative model for comparison excellent communication programs are effective

1.4.3. What organizational conditions bring about excellent communication departments?

1.4.4. What is effective communication worth to an organization? remember when this was written: 1992 measurement and ROI questions were just beginning to surface measurement is a major focus today for PRSA: "The Business Case" initiative How can the pr practitioner demonstrate to upper management the economic value of pr activity? Barcelona Declaration and ongoing work

1.5. definitions

1.5.1. public relations is the management of communication between an organization and its publics broader than specific techniques or departments advertising marketing organizational communication public relations integrated marketing communication overall planning, execution and evaluation of an organization's communication with both internal and external publics publics are groups that affect the ability of an organization to meet its goals a mediatorial function information to publics information from publics to management communication manager can keep dominant coalition and key decision makers in touch with key environmental information, attitudes, issues...

1.6. The basic theory

1.6.1. Philosophical assumptions about public relations people have different ideas about purpose and effects of public relations manipulation dissemination of information resolution of conflict promotion of understanding a key issue symmetrical assymetrical theories are most associated with a modernist conception of scientific knowledge idea is to use methodology to attain value free knowledge, unbiased, true versus other kinds of knowledge how do we develop these kinds of theories for public relations? scientists think about two levels of theories presuppositions laws / propositions excellent public relations programs are effective they are based on idealist and critical social role presuppositions research indicates that symmetrical public relations is more effective than asymmetrical this may reflect a more feminine value system, as opposed to a masculine set of values excellent public relations embodies a worldview that defines the communication function in organizations as

1.6.2. Organizational effectiveness managed interdependence is what managed communication offers, and this leads to organizational effectiveness organizations are effective when they reach their goals goals must be appropriate for the environment or strategic constituencies will not work with the organization's goals no organization attains autonomy public relations departments help the organization to manage their interdependence by building stable, open and trusting relationships with strategic constituencies

1.6.3. The management level of public relations to contribute to organizational effectiveness public relations practitioners must be part of the policy and decision making level of the organization not just technicians advising senior management on the publics, stakeholders, environment...

1.7. The program level: effective planning of communication programs

1.7.1. public relations should be practiced strategically in order to contribute to organizational effectiveness this is a quality of excellent communication management this is a normative theory: it says how things ought to be, rather than just describing and explaining how things are focus is on groups/publics that present the most threat and the most opportunity to the organization current approaches to segmenting markets and publics don't fit with my approach better to segment on the basis of similar response to an organization's behavior or communication activity

1.7.2. realism with regard to possible outcomes communication programs seldom change behavior in the short term, although they may do so over a longer period Communication programs change behavior in the short term under very specific conditions simple behavior program aimed at well-segmented public supplemented by interpersonal support among members of that public executed flawlessly more significant objectives take longer programs to achieve effect

1.8. The departmental level: characteristics of excellent public relations / communication departments

1.8.1. 12 characteristics of excellent organizations empower people by giving them autonomy and allow them to make strategic decisions attention to personal growth of employees attention to quality of work life emphasize balance teamwork and individual effort eliminate hierarchical, bureaucratic structures and develop organic structure decentralize decision making manage without managers as much as possible avoid stratification of employees integrate the organization by using have an innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, intrapreneurship stay close to strategic constituencies through symmetrical communication have leaders who rely on networking and management by walking around rather than authoritarian systems leaders provide a vision and direction create order out of chaos have strong, participative cultures employees share a sense of mission integrated by a strong culture that values practice strategic planning identify opportunities identify constraints practice social responsibility support for women and minorities quality is a priority effective operational systems exists in a collaborative societal culture: has external environment support collaboration participation trust mutual responsibility

1.9. The organizational level: the conditions that make excellence in public relations possible

1.10. The economic level: how public relations contributes to the bottom line

2. Excellence 02: Worldviews and pr theory and practice

2.1. science as a world view

2.1.1. modernism rationality vs superstition, tradition, faith, intuition remove subjectivity from thinking escape prejudice, become objective systematic methods science can create a golden world logical positivism rationalization of organizations

2.1.2. postmodernism rejection of meta-narrative science has led us to the brink of destruction fragmentation deconstruction science is a human undertaking humans impose fundamental beliefs about the world on their thinking and observing Gadamer: we are prejudice, consciousness through language Kuhn: Structure of scientific revolutions Kant: noumenal and phenomenological world we perceive through faculties, not direct contact with reality Heisenberg principle: observing changes the phenomenon

2.1.3. post-postmodernism recovery of community beyond objectivism and relativism Stanley Fish: interpretive communities Habermas: ideal speech situation colonization of the life world instrumental rationality MacIntyre: traditions in good order

2.2. Grunig's myths of science

2.2.1. science can be totally objective

2.2.2. science can be kept neutral of values

2.2.3. science can discover "truth"

2.3. public relations is seen through the worldviews of its practitioners and those who have opinions about what pr is and does

2.3.1. most pr practitioners do not have a scientific approach to the field

2.3.2. most people think about pr in non-scientific ways

2.3.3. we need to introduce more careful thought to both groups practitioners observers

2.4. philosophy of science for pr practitioners

2.4.1. think about worldviews as shaping frameworks ways of thinking about what is going on theories: frameworks for describing, explaining, predicting, intervention meta-narratives paradigms framework through which perceptions are screened (think about your study of Craig's traditions of communication theory)

2.4.2. organizational theory as a worldview machines organisms brains cultures political systems flux and transformation instruments of domination institutions

2.4.3. evaluating worldviews internal criteria coherence relevance freedom from contradiction ability to address recalcitrant issues external criteria pragmatism: what are the consequences of holding this worldview? ability to solve important problems connection to broad historical sweep ethics help people find a right relationship to themselves, their neighbor, and the universe produce a reunified human culture

2.5. excellent public relations

2.5.1. which worldview generates public relations programs that best resolve conflict in society, resolve national and international issues, make organizations more socially responsible, make organizations more effective?

2.5.2. which worldview provides for public relations that are logical, coherent, unified and orderly, that are effective in solving organizational and human problems, and helps organizations build caring and loving relationships with other individuals and groups?

2.6. Symmetrical vs asymmetrical public relations

2.6.1. department of state model vs department of defense model common pr worldview is asymmetrical goal is for our side to win metaphors we live by: lakoff and johnson research does not support the effectiveness of this approach use of communication to manipulate publics for the benefit of organizations steers practitioners towards actions that are organization knows best and publics benefit from cooperating with it public relations is a process that centers on exerting symbolic control over certain aspects of the environment and the evaluative predispositions, attitudes and subsequent behaviors of relevant publics seven presuppositions healthy and unhealthy cultures of response to crisis unhealthy organizations healthy organizations dimensions

2.6.2. four models press agentry publicity in the media in any way possible public information journalists in residence disseminate objective but only favorable information two way asymmetrical research is used to develop messages to persuade publics to behave as the organization wants two way symmetrical research and dialogue to both may change one does not need control over the environment in order to survive and live comfortably within it mixed motives

2.7. Social role of public relations

2.7.1. public relations has a role in society, not just on behalf of a business or organization

2.7.2. presuppositions pragmatic social role bottom line what my client wants results oriented practice marketing objectives "don't hobble me with ethical codes" (note: pragmatism is not a bad thing, in philosophy it refers to an approach that asks about consequences of beliefs) conservative social role maintain and defend the status quo defend the privileges of the economically powerful overcome threats to the status quo radical social role contribute to social change provide management with outside perspective establish links between groups in society contribute to solution of social problems knowledge and information provide power and influence idealistic social role codes of conduct pr serves the public interest mutual understandings between publics and organizations contributes to informed debate about issues in society facilitates a dialogue between organizations and their publics peaceful resolution of conflict between groups in society pluralist and progressive society neutral social role of pr scholarship pr is an object for scientific study asks interesting questions about motivation, goals, objectives, activities is a descriptive study critical social role Marx-ist foundations money and power are behind actions organizations and society are constructed in a way to preserve the money and power of the ruling elite ideological criticism political criticism

2.8. technical and managerial presuppositions

2.8.1. public relations is technique, not theory

2.8.2. press agentry

2.8.3. public information

2.8.4. tactics but not strategy

2.9. normative theory of public relations

2.9.1. culture cannot be authoritarian manipulative controlling of others asymmetrical

2.9.2. worldview cannot see pr as asymmetrical as neutral or advocacy as solely technical

2.9.3. worldview must see pr as symmetrical idealistic managerial

2.9.4. ethics and competing pr worldviews

3. Excellence 03: What is an effective organization?

3.1. does managed communication contribute to an effective organization?

3.1.1. how do communication managers demonstrate the value of their actions to management?

3.2. stage one: organizations are effective when they reach their goals?

3.2.1. closed system perspective

3.2.2. autonomy

3.2.3. internal considerations are responsible for effectiveness

3.3. stage two: organizations are interdependent with other organizations and groups in their environment

3.3.1. open system perspective

3.3.2. public relations as boundary spanning more about effectiveness than efficiency (in this definition)

3.4. organizations struggle to achieve their mission in the face of constraints imposed by outside groups and interests

3.4.1. (assuming internal unity and alignment)

3.4.2. manage the dependencies that create constraints on organizational actions

3.4.3. organizations are in a constant struggle for autonomy, resisting external control but the reality of interdependency continually undermines this goal organizations do not control all of the conditions necessary for the achievement of goals stakeholders public affairs organizations and leaders cannot create plans as if they were autonomous and in control of all of the conditions scarcity of resources increasing heterogeneity erosion of confidence growing movement for corporate accountability, social responsibility, transparency stakeholders have more power through activist activities and organizing activities

3.5. Building relationships that manage interdependence is the substance of public relations

3.5.1. good relationships make organizations more effective because they allow more freedom than they would have with bad relationships

3.5.2. by giving up autonomy to build relationships, organizations gain more autonomy than they would have had

3.6. Theories of organizational effectiveness

3.6.1. systems perspective interace between organization and environment sets of inter-relating elements systems, suprasystems, subsystems (nested systems) all systems affect all other systems actions in one system affect other systems growth, decline, equilibrium homeostasis interact successfully with environment in a way that promotes stability and growth inputs, throughputs, outputs communication is central in how an organization works with inputs and generates outputs need to monitor system, choose response wisely need to pay attention to quality of communication system structural functionalism design based on awareness and response to external environment what is the most efficient form of organization? functional structures: effective because adapted to external conditions public relations effectiveness is not fully explained by systems theory (at least in his view at that time) organizational learning approaches fit well with thoughts about helping organizations have an accurate view of their environment in order to adapt for effectiveness

3.6.2. competing values means and ends achievement relative to priorities of innovation versus cost and quality versus quantity factor analytic processes sought to reduce the dimensions in research in this model profits can be made by cutting costs or producing new products human resources are trained and act cohesively adaptability and readiness lead to growth planning and goal setting lead to productivity information management and communication leads to internal stability and control public relations fits into this model in terms of training and communication management

3.6.3. strategic constituencies how well are we managing the groups that are most important to our survival and thriving particularly those that could become enemies those that have the resources we need and are dependent on effectiveness is securing these resources

3.6.4. goal attainment reaching our goals clear time related measurable rational systems model organizations exist for a purpose but how do those purposes relate to the purposes of other organizations and social actors? how might the purposes of senior management be different from other parts of the organization? satisfy the demands of the strategic constituencies in the environment? other groups cooperate with resources and support increase autonomy by lessening dependencies? avoid limiting our purpose to senior management goals scan the environment to

3.7. Organizational relationships are central in discussions of effectiveness

3.7.1. formalization do we recognize the relationships and assign people to coordinate this relationship

3.7.2. intensity how much time, money and attention will we give to the relationship

3.7.3. reciprocity reciprocal interactions, mutual attention to interaction

3.7.4. standardization extent to which the interaction becomes fixed regular meetings

3.8. diversity and requisite variety

3.8.1. there must be at least as much variety in the organization as exists outside the organization if the organization wants to build effective relationships with the environment

3.9. the economic value of public relations

3.9.1. costs of activism regulation litigation low productivity of employees satisfied customers stockholders

4. Excellence 06: Strategic management, publics and issues

5. Excellence 07: Evaluation of public relations programs: effects research

6. Excellence 09: What is excellence in management?

7. Excellence 10: Public relations management and operations

8. Excellence 11: models of public relations and communication

8.1. the development of a category scheme

8.1.1. (consider similarity to bob craig chart)

8.1.2. allows for a research endeavor by giving focus and hypotheses

8.1.3. warnings about models and categories all models are "false" in the sense that no representation can capture reality perfectly Weber's "ideal types" may not be actual in any particular case a useful fiction for making sense of complex reality use with awareness of limitations develop critical skills in knowing limits, applicability, need for supplemental and replacement models, categories, theories...

8.2. early attempts at models: pedigree of the four category model

8.2.1. the public be fooled

8.2.2. the public be informed

8.2.3. synchronic synchronize the public with our goals

8.2.4. diachronic negotiate a state of affairs that benefits both the organization and the public

8.3. the four emergent models

8.3.1. press agentry / publicity Buffalo Bill Cody Calamity Jane Daniel Boone Andrew Jackson PT Barnum there is a sucker born every minute

8.3.2. public information model Ivy Lee explaining misunderstood and complicated facts to a popular audience

8.3.3. asymmetrical Creel Committee begin to use social scientific methods to research publics use findings to craft messages Edward Bernays

8.3.4. symmetrical telling the truth interpreting the client and the public to each other management understanding the viewpoints of employees and neighbors as well as neighbors and employees understanding the viewpoints of management develop understanding (note Gadamer and hermeneutics)

8.4. research support for the four models

8.4.1. positive theories describe understand problems

8.4.2. normative theories guide solve problems may not be practiced anywhere argues that if practiced it would lead to effective outcomes

8.4.3. how can we measure how much each model is used are you trying to change attitudes and behavior or facilitate communication and understanding Grunig questionairre research language the effectiveness of each model

8.5. reasons for practicing various models

8.5.1. organizations do not always match form to environment form is skewed by internal factors rather than simple adaption to effective interaction with the environment power-control model: a coalition of the most powerful people in that organization, the dominant coalition, chooses the behaviors organizational culture potential of the public relations department schema for public relations in the organization

9. Excellence 12: organizational roles of communication and public relations practitioners

9.1. (excuse me, but can you tell me what public relations people do?)

9.2. four communication practitioner roles

9.2.1. manager

9.2.2. technician

9.2.3. communication liason

9.2.4. media relations

9.3. organizations have people who become the focal point for meeting expectations and functions

9.3.1. office / role

9.3.2. professional expectations professions a set of professional values membership in strong professional organizations adherance to professional norms an established body of knowledge or theory to guide practice technical skills learned through professional training semi-professions

9.3.3. public relations as an emerging profession role ambiguity organizations and people have different expectations send different roles to the practitioner positive: allows for some autonomy: if people aren't sure what you do, you can choose and set the expectations

9.3.4. practitioners can change their role from technician to manager

9.4. roles theory and research in public reltions

9.4.1. Broom theory based roles expert prescriber diagnosis and treatment management implements their recommendations management offers passive dependency communication facilitator go between mediator problem solving process facilitator systematic thinking towards solutions active engagement of others essential in two way symmetrical model rated highest in satisfaction: adequacy, efficacy, expertise communication technician technical service provider implements decisions made by others journalist in residence

9.4.2. Ferguson empirical based roles problem solver manager journalist technical communicator researcher staff manager good will ambassador meeting organizer personnel industrial relations public community relations

9.4.3. Dozier public relations manager public relations technician media relations specialist communication liason

9.4.4. factor analysis: how many dimensions does it take to describe the various roles that public relations practitioners are sent to take on? proposition 1: variance in practitioner role activities can be parsimoniously accounted for through two basic organizational roles: manager and technicians (well, that took a long time and alot of work to figure out, I could have told you that based on my experience) (well yes you could have, but you wouldn't have any research base of evidence to support that claim, so my experience and opinions would be as good as yours) (ok, so this becomes a valid and reliable finding that can provide a basis for management activity and further research)

9.5. roles, program evaluation and environmental scanning

9.5.1. requirement for increased rigor and social science practice in public relations activity seat of the pants intuition research based recommendations driven from outside the profession social science based evaluation

9.5.2. using evaluation research preparation dissemination impact

9.5.3. Dozier scientific impact seat of the pants dissemination clip file counting

9.5.4. evaluation is part of the feedback loop in an open systems model inputs as well as outputs changes in the environment that may affect ability of the organization to thrive or survive

9.5.5. for evaluation to work well, there must be quantifiable goals in place knowledge attitudes behavior

9.5.6. proposition 2: practitioners enacting the public relations manager role will engage in both scientific and informal program evaluation and environmental scanning with greater frequency than practitioners not enacting the managers role

9.5.7. proposition 3: enactment of the public relations technician role is not related to frequency of scientific and informal program evaluation and environmental scanning activities

9.5.8. proposition 4: practitioner involvement in management decision making is a separate function of manager role enactment and of the practitioners use of research (scanning and evaluation)

9.6. roles, decision making, and environments

9.6.1. management decision making relates to public relations practice boundary spanning function: creating accurate perceptions both ways management can make better decisions when this function is present pr practitioners help management make decisions that adapt to changes in the environment

9.6.2. participation in decision making grants pr practitioners status and helps resist encroachment of the field by those trained in other disciplines new policies major problems new programs implementations review of results

9.6.3. organizations that practice closed system behaviors are likely to relegate pr people to technician roles

9.6.4. proposition 5: practitioners are more likely to enact the manager role in organizations where the environment is unstable, threatening or both

9.6.5. proposition 6: practitioners are more likely to enact the technician role where the environment is stable and nonthreatening

9.6.6. proposition 7: manager role enactment and research activities are decreased and practitioner involvement in decision making is reduced in organizations where the dominant coalition holds a closed systems ideology

9.7. roles and models of public relations

9.7.1. proposition 8: manager role enactment is more frequent in organizations practicing the two way symmetric and asymmetric models of public relations

9.7.2. proposition 9: manager role enactment is less frequent in organizations practicing the press agentry or public information models of public relations

9.7.3. proposition 10: technician role enactment is more frequent in organizations practicing the press agentry and public information models of public relations

9.7.4. proposition 11: the management role is favored in organizations where the dominant coalition is relatively open to the organization's environment

9.7.5. proposition 12: the technician role is favored in organizations where the dominant coalition is relatively closed to the organization's environment

9.7.6. proposition 13: the management role is favored where the negotiated belief structure of the dominant coalition is contested or dialectical

9.7.7. proposition 14: the technician role is favored where the negotiated belief structure of the dominant coalition is limited or contextual

9.8. roles, practitioner belief systems, and job satisfaction

10. Excellence 17: adaptation to enviornment

11. Excellence 20: Symmetrical systems of communication

12. Excellence 21: corporate culture and public relations

13. Excellence 22: societal culture and public

14. Excellence 18: power in the public relations department

15. Excellence 16: Public relations education and professionalism

15.1. introduction analogy

15.1.1. your doctor

15.1.2. how are doctors trained, accredited

15.1.3. people just hang out a shingle? catch me if you can movie: flying airplanes

15.2. key questions

15.2.1. what is a profession?

15.2.2. who is a professional?

15.2.3. benefits of being identified as a profession?

15.2.4. how do professions relate to org and pr communicators?

15.3. professionalism criteria

15.3.1. Theaker chapter

15.3.2. Grunig and Hunt a set of professional values hierarchy membership in strong professional organization that can provide accreditation/legitimacy Public Relations Society of America International Association of Business Communicators adherance to professional norms an intellectual tradition associated with an established body of knowledge technical skills acquired through long periods of prescribed professional education

15.4. public relations education and professionalism

15.4.1. what kinds of training prepare a person for professional service in the field of public relations?

15.4.2. history of educational standards August 1973 Commission on Public Relations Education: Association of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Report in 1975: A design for public relations education social dimension: "our divided society cries out for communication, conciliation and community" vs publicity approach vs "retreads" from other fields of communication (like SCA!) desire to move beyond technician role to management role Coursework areas doctoral programs would produce more qualified pr teachers 1982: Graduate education formalizing the practice formalizing the preparation/education practitioners and educators must work together coursework areas difference between masters and doctoral studies 1983: undergraduate education coursework recommended keep practice embedded in broader understanding of management and strategic practice, theory and research 1986 task forces Task Force on Demonstrating Professionalism Body of Knowledge Task Force

15.4.3. Jackson 1988 notes essential function of "building and improving human relationships" an art applied to a science serving the public interest

15.4.4. present low state of public relations continued lack of accreditation requirements for practitioners lack of participation in professional organizations lack of licensure requirement continued diversity of definitions about what public relations is representation of pr as disinformation and deception

15.4.5. PRSA statement 1982 management function public opinion planning recruiting and training staff need to delineate how this functions along with other managerial personnel is pr the overarching function? is every executive doing pr?

15.5. public relations versus publicity

15.5.1. grunig's four models press agentry public information two way asymmetrical two way symmetrical public relations efforts which are based on research and that use communication to manage conflict and to improve understanding with strategic publics different from marketing, publicity seeking win-win solutions between adversarial organizations