Environmental Science version 0.8

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Environmental Science version 0.8 by Mind Map: Environmental Science version 0.8

1. Earth's spheres

1.1. Biosphere

1.1.1. Biodiversity Miller Ch. 4 Species diversity/richness Genetic diversity Functional diversity Ecological diversity

1.1.2. Ecology Miller Ch. 3 ways of looking at ecology Scale vs. Resolution

1.1.3. Toxicity and Pollution Miller Ch. 18 LD50 Lab Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Silent Spring Pest control

1.2. Lithosphere

1.2.1. Miller Ch. 15 Rocks and minerals Lithospheric mineral resources Identifying rocks and minerals Weathering Geologic Evidence Washington Geology The Rock Record

1.2.2. Lithospheric energy resources Miller Ch. 16-17 Coal, oil and natural gas Personal Energy Use Assessment

1.2.3. Soil resources Miller Ch. 13 Soil Pit, soil horizons Agriculture and land use Soil nutrients

1.3. Atmosphere

1.3.1. Air pollution Tropospheric Miller Ch. 19 Miller Ch. 20 Miller Ch. 19 Indoor Stratospheric Miller Ch. 20

1.3.2. Weather and climate Pacific Northwest Weather and climate Global climate

1.4. Hydrosphere

1.4.1. Resources Miller Ch. 14 Freshwater Marine

1.4.2. Pollution Miller Ch. 21 Freshwater Marine

1.4.3. Water cycle Miller Ch. 14

1.5. Anthrosphere

1.5.1. Solid waste Miller Ch. 22 Municpal Industrial

1.5.2. Human health Miller Ch. 18 Two ways to look at this Kinds of disease Human health investigation Malaria Socratic Seminar

1.5.3. Sustainability Concepts of sustainability "All" energy is solar Thermodynamics (energy transfers) Biological sustainability Nutrient recycling Footprints Carbon footprint Ecological footprint Sustainable cities Miller Ch. 23

1.5.4. Environmental worldviews/philosophies Miller Ch. 26 Human-centered Life/earth-centered Deep ecology Ecofeminism Ecospirituality

1.5.5. Political and economic systems Miller Ch. 24-25 (integrated into Atmosphere Unit) Poliitical systems Economic systems

2. Cycles of matter and energy

2.1. Miller Ch. 3

2.1.1. Geochemical cycles Reservoirs are bold Processes are italic Water Atmosphere Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Hydrosphere Infiltration/percolation Lithosphere Subduction Volcanism Biosphere Uptake Evapotranspiration Carbon Ocean water Diffusion Respiration Photosynthesis Marine sediments/rocks Troposphere Food webs (biomass) Combustion Nitrogen Soils Food webs (biomass) Decomposition Denitrification Atmosphere Nitrogen fixation Fertilizers Phosphorus Fertilizer Food webs Guano Dissolved in water Sediments and rocks Agriculture Uptake Decomposition Sedimentation Mining Weathering Sulfur (beta branch) Untitled Rock Lithosphere

2.2. Energy inputs/outputs

3. Issues and solutions

3.1. Laws, treaties, government Important laws are bold

3.1.1. Federal General Mining Act 1872 Allows prospecting and claims on Federal public lands National Forests Established 1891 Gifford Pinchot Agricultural intent, multi-use today National Parks Created 1916 Stephen Mather Yellowstone: World's first National Park, 1872 Includes parks, monuments, recreation areas, etc. Preservation and recreation Migratory Bird Act 1918 Considered "first" major environmental law Prevents taking/killing/posessing migratory birds Taylor Grazing Act 1934 Intended to control grazing of livestock on Federal lands Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act 1947 Gave Federal Department of Agricultre regulatory authority Transferred to Environmental Protection Agency in 1972 Wilderness Act 1964 Protects areas "untrammeled by man" National Environmental Policy Act 1969 Established requirement for Environmental Imact Statements Occupational Health and Safety Act 1970 Created administration of same name under Labor Department Prevention of work-related injury, death, illness Environmental Protection Agency 1970 Created by President Richard Nixon by executive order Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972 All U.S. marine mammals are protected Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 Federal government can regulate pollution on navigable waterways Safe Drinking Water Act 1974 Established standards for public water systems Toxic Substances Control Act 1976 Gives EPA authority to regulate many chemicals Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 Governs disposal of solid and hazardous wastes Clean Water Act 1977 Revised and strengthened Soil and Water Conservation Act 1977 Created soil and water conservation districts under the Federal Department of Agriculture Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 1980 Enacted in respose to Love Canal a.k.a. Superfund Establishes liability for pollution and a fund to clean up when liable parties can't pay or can't be found Clean Air Act 1990 Tropospheric air pollution regulated CFCs regulated EPA may regulate carbon dioxide under this act Pollution Prevention Act 1990 Aims to reduce waste at the source Healthy Forests Initiative 2003 official name: Healthy Forests Restoration Act Selective logging to prevent wildfires Energy Policy Acts 1992 and 2005 Energy policy gives tax incentives for various kinds of energy production Agricultural Transport Laws Various years Intended to prevent spread of pests

3.1.2. State Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife dates to 1890 (fish) Depts. of Fish and Wildlife merged in 1994 Manages fish and wildlife populations State Environmental Policy Act 1971 Requires state/local agencies to consider environmental consequences Washington Department of Ecology Established 1971 Jurisdiction over state pollution issues Washington Department of Health 1989 Public health Washington state's initiative process Process by which citizens can propose and enact laws Responsible for various environmental legislation

3.1.3. International Treaties with Native American tribes Various years, mostly 1800s Various legal effects Montreal Protocol Signed 1987, enforced 1989 Regulates/bans ozone-destroying CFCs North American Free Trade Agreement 1994 Establishes free-trade zone between U.S., Canada and Mexico Kyoto Protocol Written 1997, enforced 2005, goals for 2012 a.k.a. Kyoto Accords Regulates greenhouse gas emissions U.S. is signatory but has not ratified it

3.1.4. Other Mayors Climate Protection Agreement 2005 Response to U.S. nonparticipation in Kyoto Launched by Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels Cities meet Kyoto targets

3.2. Anthropogenic Problems (beta branch)

4. Web links

4.1. Course links

4.1.1. The Source

4.1.2. Assignment Blog

4.2. Other links

4.2.1. Google Docs

4.2.2. Textbook site

4.2.3. AP Environmental Science (College Board)

4.2.4. Olympic Park Institute

5. Scientific Inquiry (beta branch)

5.1. Observing

5.2. Hypothesizing

5.3. Testing

5.4. Untitled

6. Explanation of this concept map (click to expand)

6.1. How to read it

6.1.1. Key Key terms are green with check marks Or just have check marks Readings are red Lab investigations are cyan Other activities are purple Link arrows Connect related concepts in most topics Show inputs/outputs in cycles

6.1.2. Using the browser There are buttons at the top of the page that tell you what they do when you mouse over them The rightmost button can change the background color; if you make it grey you can see the linking arrows Drag it around, zoom with the mouse wheel Web links need to be copied and pasted in Flash viewer

6.2. Development notes: This concept map is NOT complete! Version 0.5 was e-mailed to Environmental Science students on 5/2 as a pdf Subsequent versions may have the following features:

6.2.1. 0.6 Editable by students who download Freemind software

6.2.2. 0.7 html format

6.2.3. 0.8 Interactive as Flash applet from local computers

6.2.4. 0.9 Printed version (not necessarily a handout for everyone)

6.2.5. 1.0 Interactive as a Flash or Java applet embedded on a published Web page

6.2.6. 2.0 Complete

6.3. What is this?

6.3.1. This concept map was made in Freemind Download at freemind.sourceforge.net

6.3.2. Browswer is Freemind Flash Viewier