History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Parchment

1.1. A substrate made from animal skin such as sheep, goats, and cows

1.2. Parchment replaced papyrus because it was more durable

1.3. Making parchment

1.3.1. 1. Hair and fat removed and skin was smoothed out

1.3.2. 2. Hide was soaked in water. Calcium, flour and salt were added

1.3.3. 3. Skin was stretched out, flattened, and dried

2. Papyrus

2.1. 1st: Wet reeds were placed criss cross over each other

2.2. 2nd: Weeds were flattened and dried

2.3. 3rd: They were rubbed with flat stones until the surface became smooth

3. Settled in Sumer region because of fertile land

3.1. Cuneiform created there

3.1.1. Helped keep track of these business transactions

3.1.2. Clay tablets

3.1.3. Cuneiform evolved into a wedge shaped language

3.2. Akkadians invade the Sumer region

4. Cave Paintings

4.1. Famous Caves

4.1.1. Lascaux France Closed due to carbon dioxide emitted from tourists and ruining the paintings French government created Lascaux 2 to satisfy the tourists.

4.1.2. Altamira Spain Red hue

4.1.3. Chauvet Pont d'Arc Oldest known cave painting site Walls scraped clear of debris looks 3D

4.2. Tell stories and event

4.3. Instructional visual aid to help teach about hunting techniques

4.4. Religious reasons that if an image was painted, it would come to life

5. Sumerians

5.1. Theocratic culture ruled by a priest king

5.2. Skilled artisans who created vases, bowl, and other types of pottery.

5.3. Music was a big part of their life.

6. Egyptian hieroglyphics

6.1. combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

6.2. Ancient Egyptians believed it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government

7. Phonetic Alphabet

7.1. One sign represents one spoken sound

7.2. The trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use of the alphabet into parts of North Africa and Europe

7.3. Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

8. The Codex and the Illuminated Manuscript

8.1. Scrolls

8.1.1. Long continuous piece of papyrus

8.1.2. Made up of separate sheets glued together at the edges

8.2. Codex

8.2.1. Covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

8.2.2. Compactness, sturdiness and ease of reference

8.2.3. Could be opened flat at any page

8.2.4. Christianity used it in the Bible

9. The Gutenberg Press

9.1. Johannes Gutenberg introduced modern book printing

9.1.1. Loved to read

9.1.2. His father was a goldsmith and jeweler

9.1.3. Created oil-based ink

9.2. Printing Press

9.2.1. Hand Press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable hand-set letters held within a wooden frame

9.2.2. Developed from the technology of the screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

9.3. Moveable Type

9.3.1. First developed in China

9.3.2. the system of printing that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document

9.3.3. could be reproduced more quickly once a single mold could be made

9.3.4. John Fust invested in Gutenberg's inventions and eventually got credit for the priting with Schoeffer

9.4. Printing Processes

9.4.1. Relief Printing

9.4.2. Intaglio

9.4.3. Porous

9.4.4. Lithography

10. The Linotype Machine

10.1. Keyboard

10.1.1. 90 character keyboard

10.1.2. Arrangement of keys was based on letter frequency

10.1.3. Black keys for lowercase letters on the left

10.1.4. White keys for uppercase letters on the right

10.1.5. Blue keys for punctuation, digits, small capital letters and fixed with spaces in the middle

10.2. Typewriter

10.2.1. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewrite that became commercially successful Clephane tested his typewriter Clephane went to Ottmar Mergenthaler to help him improve the machine into the Linotype Machine

10.2.2. Most important users of the typewrite were stenographers

10.3. Produces an entire line of metal type at once

11. Photography

11.1. Camera Obscura

11.1.1. An optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

11.1.2. In the 17th and 18th centuries the camera obscura shrunk to the size of a portable box and the image was reflected onto ground glass

11.2. Photographic processes

11.2.1. Daguerreotype First practical photographic process Created by Daguerre He exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image Exposure time was reduced from 8 hours to half-hour

11.2.2. Calotype Created by William Fox Talbot The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative It's the basis of our modern photographic process because an unlimited amounts of duplicates could be made

11.2.3. Wet Plate Process Created by Archer Glass plates were used for the negative Exposure time is two or three seconds Glass plates were coated with collodion, a colorless syrupy solution of nitrocellulose in ether Plates had to be exposed and developed immediately while they were still wet

11.2.4. Dry Plate Process Created by Richard Maddox Glass plates were coated with gelatin

11.3. Eastman Kodak Company

11.3.1. He invented a roll film, a photographic medium that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-emulsion coated on paper rolls

11.3.2. he camera owner could send in the camera with a minimal processing fee. The company would process the film, reload the camera with a new roll, and return it to the owner

11.3.3. Marketed The Brownie to the general public in 1900

11.4. First photographs

11.4.1. Joseph Niepe created the first successful photograph in 1827

11.4.2. James Clerk Maxwell took the first color photograph

12. Computers

12.1. Univac

12.1.1. First commercial computer

12.1.2. Designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly

12.1.3. universal automatic computer

12.2. IBM

12.2.1. International business machines

12.2.2. Developed the IBM701 EDPM computer

12.2.3. Introduced the first memory disk- the Floppy Disk

12.3. Computer mouse

12.3.1. Invented by Douglas Engelbart

12.3.2. Wanted to make computers a more user-friendly tool

12.3.3. Nicknamed the mouse because of its "tail"

12.4. Internet

12.4.1. First internet called ARPnet

12.4.2. It was developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

12.5. Apple

12.5.1. The Lisa Computer First personal computer with a GUI Xerox developed the first GUI

12.5.2. Introduced the Apple Macintosh computer in 1984