50 Philosophical Concepts that You should Know

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50 Philosophical Concepts that You should Know by Mind Map: 50 Philosophical Concepts that You should Know

1. Every argument needs premises, but there is nothing that is the premise of every argument

2. Empericism

2.1. A Postori

2.1.1. Coal is black

2.2. Synthetic

2.2.1. All spinsters are miserable different concepts need to be collected to see if it is true

2.3. Contingent Truth

2.3.1. True, but may not be the same over time

2.4. They try to prove that rational ideas are based on experience. Hume on the 18 year old who is kept from all experiences. Does he understand numbers?

3. All spinsters are unmarried

4. Greek and Calacians - whether it would be ok to eat or to burn your parents. CUSTOMS IS KING OF ALL.

5. Tripartite theory of knowledge

5.1. Plato's justified true belief

5.1.1. Three parts 1. He is true to the belief. One could not say that the moon is made of cheese is you truly disbelieve it 2. Believes it to be true 3. Some sort of rational belief 1963. Edmond Getiur. Examples where the three conditions are met, but it is still false.

6. Plato's Cave

6.1. Book VII of The Republic

6.2. In the cave the relmn of becoming

6.2.1. Imperfect, the world we see

6.3. Relmn of being

6.3.1. Perfect, unchanging, world of forms


6.4.1. The Sun - Form of the Good

6.5. The Problem with universals

6.5.1. Realists (Plato's school of thought) Nominalists (merely names, not linked to any world of forms)

6.5.2. anti-realists - set up 2,000 years ago

6.6. The returning prisoner was laughed at by fellow prisoner, which is the fate of philosophers

6.7. Condensed idea: Earthly knowledge is merely shadows

7. 21. Slippery Slopes

7.1. example: Active eunesia where this brings about guilt of the old where they will kill themselves

7.2. Justification in making policy is eclipsed by the result Z that will be horrible. What happens between A-Z is kept quiet

7.3. Example: Parents choosing the sex of their children will result in all sorts of frankenstein babies

7.3.1. It needs to be looked upon as the merits and not the rhetoric. What good can come from this.

7.4. This is new information to me, but makes sense when looking at modern television and the fear that is generated by the television capitalists

7.5. The problem is that it is assumed that there is a cause and effect - War in Vietnam would be the most infamous use.

7.5.1. Domino Theory - Narrative Fallacy

7.6. Wedges

7.6.1. Example, the right to a jury trial for difficult to understand cases should kept from the Everyman Some see this as the thin edge of the wedge

7.6.2. Immigration, abortion, are prime examples

8. The catagorical imperative

8.1. Story of the woman who you have to lie about in order to save her life.

8.1.1. Kant would say you should tell the truth all the time and it is your duty to do this. Hypothetical imperative Obeying in fear of the consequence, "stop smoking because you don't want to ruin your health or money." Catagorical Imperative Things that should be obeyed without qualifying conditions Do not kill, do not lie These are considered absolute moral laws act in a way that always serves humanity. This agency will be extended to other people. These may not be overriden. condensed idea duty at any cost.

9. Introduction:

9.1. Philosophy is a power keg - Socrates and others

9.2. What we should do, not what we can do.

10. The Brain in a Vat

10.1. You can't be certain that you are not in a vat. There is a chance, albeit it is a small one. This is a knowledge question.

10.1.1. American Hillary Putnam was the philosopher that brought this idea in, which was an adaptation of Descarte's genie

10.1.2. The sure foundation of knowledge is starting with awareness being at least something to be sure of.

10.1.3. Skepticism - Philosophical claim is different from the popular usage. In the philosophical sense, it is to challenge claims to knowledge. A good philosopher is a skeptic. When the skeptic becomes overly skeptical, they fall into relativism. Everything is Relative! Are you 100% sure of that? Leads to evil demons and brains in a vat.

10.1.4. Epistimology Tries to defeat skepticism

10.1.5. Condensed idea: Are you an invavated brain?

11. The veil of the world

11.1. Do we observe the outside world directly, or are we looking only a sense data?

11.2. John Locke: People are merely in closets and are getting our understanding from the outside.

11.2.1. There is a veil of perception that impedes reality.

11.2.2. Primary and Secondary qualities Skeptics could argue a tomato could be of any color Secondary quality is what the humans make it out to be. For example, durians smell horribly. The ego-centric predictament Primary qualities: Qualities that are indisputable such as the weight and size. These are independent of conditions in which they were observed. Scientists are mostly involved with this idea

11.2.3. George Barkley was a critic Feared that Locke would never escape from a world of representation. The world is based on an immaterialist - To exist is to perceive - Everything is observed by God, therefore God makes everything exist. Reality existed in the ideas themselves, not in the physical properties - The denial of the external physical world

11.2.4. Condensed Idea What lies behind the veil?

12. Chapter 4 - I think therefore I am

12.1. Rene Descartes

12.1.1. Method of Doubt Demon mind Criticism - This thinking only works for me, not for everyone. It is not in the tense other than present. A bare instance of self-consciousness A demon could be fooling me into thinking that there are people around me who are not really there. Reconstructs knowledge from this starting point. 1. The things we can clearly see are in fact real. 2. Since we conceive of God very clearly and he is good, which means that he is not deceiving us.

13. Reason and Experience

13.1. Rationalism

13.1.1. A Priori 2+2=4 Known without experience

13.1.2. Analytic

13.1.3. Necessary Truth Could not be otherwise in any circumstance / all possible worlds

13.2. Coherent-ism

14. The mind body problem

14.1. We are all actors in the center of our worlds

14.2. Descartes ... Dualism thoughts are not matter

14.2.1. God was the one that made the actions happen, thus making what we think happened. Not a strong argument. Occasional ism

14.2.2. Spinoza. Property dualism Relates to properties not substances. Mental and physical properties . Different from Descartes dualism. Humans have different properties that interact. Physicalism

14.3. 12th idea - Hume's guitine

14.3.1. is/is not; ought/ought not argument - Hume - Treatise on human nature How can we move from a descriptor such as "is" to an ethical "ought"? Hume thinks you can not do this. FACT AND VALUE ARE NOT RELATED, WHICH SUBVERTS ALL MORAL ARGUMENTS The Naturalistic fallacy - GE Moore Moral intuition - based on natural ideas.

15. What is it like to be a bat?

15.1. Nagal .... There is a subjective character of experience that is not covered by the physicalists.

15.1.1. Humans view of the world is based on our own biological tools.

15.2. Frank Jackson. What Mary didn't know......regarding color.

15.2.1. Mary knows everything about colors but is blind. I don't get this point.

16. The touring test

16.1. Artificial intelligence

16.1.1. Can machines think?

16.2. No computer has fully fooled a human

16.3. The Chinese experiment

16.3.1. A man locked in the room and responding according. Show that people are merely manipulating symbols. The problem is that ia is not intelligence. My view is that humans are just complicated computers

16.4. Behaviorism and functionalism.

16.4.1. Mental functions are expressed and are defined by inputs and outputs

16.4.2. Functionalism Mental states are functional states. Takes us back to the Chinese room. As much as people don't like this, I think it is how we are put together.

17. The ship of Thesius. 1:05

17.1. A good idea for old rock groups and whether they are really the same groups.

17.2. What's the original and is there such a thing? Are we previous versions of ourself?

17.3. Psychological continuity? John Locke says this is what makes us human.

17.3.1. Beam me up. What if there is a mistake in the beam and there are two of you

17.3.2. Hume . The only thing we can experience are things that only belong to us.

18. chapter 2 / 11th idea - other minds

18.1. zombie argument - how can you be sure that zombies aren't everyone.

18.2. Is behavior enough to show that we have the same consciousness?

18.2.1. argument from analogy Bertrand Russel and the drawing of conclusions from inference. When will there be enough information to count as relevant?

19. 13th idea - One man's meat

19.1. The relativist argument is from this.

19.1.1. If everyone is for capital punishment for minors, is capital punishment OK?

19.1.2. What relativity is useful is when you look at relative perspectives, sync them, and then reform your ideas

20. 14th idea - The devine command theory

20.1. Ethics Euthophro and Plato

20.1.1. Is something holy because it is loved by god or because it is holy because it is better? Killing could be just because God had said so. Otherwise, God is just the moral messenger because god says so.

21. The boo /horah theory

21.1. emotivism

21.1.1. Moral judgements are based on emotional feelings

21.1.2. Problem is that anything can be acceptable ---- Morality by advertising -----

21.2. Moral relativism

22. 16 Ends and Means

22.1. Shark story of in a balloon and coming down on a dangerous situation

22.2. Consequentialism

22.2.1. Looks at what the consequence is and whether that can be achieved.

22.3. Ontological argument

22.3.1. Right or wrong in themselves

22.3.2. Killing any innocent people is wrong and can't be justified

23. the Experience Machine 17

23.1. Robet Nossick ammerican philosopher

23.1.1. Would you plug in, what else would matter than what your life feels like? How his this even different from drug abuse.

23.1.2. Different from the vat experiment because you are looking at someone's choice. How would this be different from living in a family where you have to pay for your college education or having someone that will pay for it yourself

23.1.3. Possible order of operations: Would you: Go into the experience machine, use drugs, have someone else take an IB world exam for you. Having the homework machine, paying for college yourself, living like an average person.

23.2. 1:48 mark on second floor

23.3. Bentham and Utility

23.3.1. Decisions should be based on whether or not they increase or decrease human well being.

23.3.2. Utilitarianism The greatest happiness to the greatest numbers. Rational and scientific decision making that moves away from natural rights and natural Law Measurement should be determined by addition and substraction. Duration and intensity is all that matters. therefore the experience machine would not be worthwhile. higher and lower pleasure - Narrow understanding of pleasure. Knowledge, honor and achievement, are no better than playing bingo. Higher and lower quality makes a difference. Intellect and art is more valuable than base pleasures. brought about by Mill who didn't want bingo to be as important as high art. Pleasure might not be enough to justify action. How do you determine what is high art? Long term effects

24. The Golden Rule 19

24.1. Segregation on the grounds of race, JFK example used.

24.2. Kant alludes to it, but says it is too simple and did not go far enough to cover the high moral questions

24.3. JS Mill - Thought that it was about Utilitarism

24.4. Prescriptionism- essential for moral judgements

24.5. What about when the masochist who follows the Golden Rule and wants to exercise it.

24.5.1. An egotist can be consistent by following their interpretation. Here is the probblem

25. 20. Acts and Omissions Doctrine

25.1. The lifeboat dilima - No easy choice when you only have two choices

25.2. Should you do something if you can, or do you have the duty to play God

25.3. Killing or allowing something to die

25.3.1. Active and Passive Euthenia

26. 22. Beyond the call of Duty

26.1. moral duty - What is expected of you and you are blamed if you don't do it.

26.2. There are ideals which people may strive for, but are not blamed if they do not undertake this task.

26.2.1. Saints and Heroes

26.3. Utilitarianism - An action is good if it increases utility to the maximum

26.3.1. This is a HUGE problem with how we have actions. If something is good, we should all be doing it. Where do we draw the line for obligation. Where can you find an excuse? Doctrine of Double Effect

27. 23. 2:24 - Is it bad to be unlucky


28. 24. Virtue Ethics - 2.31

28.1. Actions instead of Agents

28.2. Kant

28.2.1. Duty Based

28.3. Bentham and Mill

28.3.1. Consequentialism

28.3.2. Utalitarianism

28.4. Plato and Aristotle

28.4.1. What is the best way to live was most important, not what should be done. Recently studied again and is known as Virtue Ethics

28.4.2. Will habitually behave in a way that is correct. This seems to be more important when you look at the decisions that we make subconsciously. Broken up into different components Intelligence Courage Justice Temperance All about flourishing Unity of virtues How those four virtues are interconnected

29. 25. Animal Rights

29.1. Do animals feel pain?

29.2. Do what extent do animals have consciousness?

29.2.1. We don't know a whole lot about this. We don't even know if humans feel the same thing to the same stimulai monkey and gorillas are pretty easy to understand, but what about Jellyfish? There is a lot of anthropomorphism going on with people overlaying themselves onto animals.

30. 26. Do animals have rights

30.1. 50 millions used in experiments

30.2. What is the basis of animal rights?

30.2.1. The World is better if there is less pain

30.2.2. This is the Utilitarian Argument

30.2.3. Animals can feel pain But jellyfish? Pain is alright, but suffering is where the unethical behavior begins

30.3. The formula weighs on whether animal pain brings a good benefit to humans

30.4. Singer

30.5. Tom Regen

30.5.1. Some animals reach the level of "a life" and can not have their rights taken away from them in terms of testing and harvesting. This dissolves the cost benefit of the utilitarian argument