Laughter Out of Place Chapters 4 and 5

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Laughter Out of Place Chapters 4 and 5 by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place Chapters 4 and 5

1. Goldstein

1.1. Class

1.1.1. Trend among the middle and upper classes in Brazil's major cities have been moved to hide behind walls to protect themselves (p. 146)

1.1.2. Street children formed part of an awakened national consciousness for Brazilians (p. 147)

1.1.3. The poorer classes learn how to survive in a harsh world (p. 163)

1.1.4. This is just one characteristic that seems to have solidified ans become a sustaining aspect of middle classness throughout the 1990s (p. 165)

1.1.5. Scientific psychology and therapeutic discourse as practiced by the middle and elite classes, presently have little impact on the live of the people in Felicidade Eterna (p. 165)

1.1.6. Lare favelas have a reputation for harboring petty thieves, serious criminals and participants of the drug trade. But they are also known to be homes to the domestic workers, the cooks, day cleaners and nannies who serivce the wealthier class (p. 167)

1.1.7. Everyone knows their place and their chances for success in the system (p. 203)

1.2. Violence

1.2.1. The idea that violence is unequally distributed throughout Rio with poor neighborhoods and shanytowns experiencing the higest level of violence on a number of different scales (p. 175)

1.2.2. Middle and upper classes have relatively little exposure to the kind of violence experienced by the poorest (p. 175)

1.2.3. Talk about violence and crime proliferates across classes, the forms and levels of daily violence and suffering in the city are experienced differently according to class, race, gender and location (p. 177)

1.2.4. Violence is experienced in profoundly different intensities according to socioeconomic class (p. 202)

1.2.5. The relationships between the favela residents and the police produce a structure of regular violence unknown to middle and upper class (p. 204)

1.3. Gangs

1.3.1. The presence of gangs in the favelas has provided legal and moral justification for the government's use of excessive forece (p. 180)

1.3.2. Favelas are seen as high crime areas are are preceived to be controlled by drug traifficjers (p. 181)

1.3.3. The drug chiefs are important local figures - they provide badly needed services such as housing and emergency cash in times of need (p. 181)

1.3.4. Gangs have a more sympathetic profile than police (p. 181)

1.3.5. Gangs protect the favela from the outsiders - intruders, bandits from other favelas and drug dealing or gun battling (p. 183)

1.3.6. Revenge is a stand in for a legal system that is absent. Gangs play a major role in providing a form of justice that many residents are willing to see administered (p. 189)

1.3.7. The name police bandit captures the sense of breakdown of the rule of law in the poorest neighborhoods and making clear the corrupt nature of the police (p. 190)

1.3.8. Handle the protection from outsider ganges, small scale drug trafficking and private matters, such as revenge on matters of sexual abuse and violence (p. 190)

1.3.9. In the brown zones, the local gangs provide a parallel state structure and alternative rule of law. There is a great deal of consensus among the population that police are corrupt (p. 200)

2. Humor

2.1. Laughter (p. 2)

2.1.1. About political and economic structures.

2.1.2. About contraditions within thier own poverty.

2.1.3. Black humor

2.2. Funnies stories about pain and tragedy was part of the shared emotional aesthetic of black humor (p. 166)

3. Theories

3.1. Contardo Calligaris (p. 143)

3.1.1. Commented on the treatment of children by middle and upper class Brazilians described a setting in which the child is king.

3.2. Teresa Calderia

3.2.1. Refers to socail segregation and the construction of a city of walls in her description of Sao Paulo during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Fear of crime has served to legitimize private and illegal reactions such as organizing death squads to exterminate street children (p. 146)

3.2.2. The middle and upper class preoccupation with crime is apparent in the never ending talk of crime which feeds a circle of fear is both dealt with and reproduced and in which violence is both counteracted and magnified (p. 177)

3.2.3. Modern form of Brazilian goverment where the police distinguish between the kinds of rules to be applied depending on which segment of the population is being dealth with. Elite and middle classes = some version of the traditional rule of law but in lower classes = it does not. (p. 205)

3.3. Gilberto Dimenstein (p. 147)

3.3.1. Revealed the systematic assassinations of street children in Brazil by death squads and the ambivalent feelings of the middle and upper classes with regard to those children.

3.4. Hecht

3.4.1. Describes the class difference that results in differential childhoods for the rich and the poor as creating nurtured children (poor) or nurturing children (middle class) (p. 149).

3.4.2. Finds that girls are more physically vulnerable than boys on the street because the street is seen as transforming gilrs into sexually initiated women (p. 152)

3.4.3. Describes the NGOs and their mission is to transform the lives of street youth through hard work (p. 166)

3.5. De Matta (p. 149)

3.5.1. The home is the female domain and the street is more egalitarian and individualistic.

3.6. Claudia Fonseca (p. 154)

3.6.1. Low income households, child shifting or child circulation. Where a child was passed from relative to relative to be cared for.

3.7. Bourdieu (p. 164)

3.7.1. Creates an ethos toward child rearing. Father figure credits the child with a good nature which must be accepted as such.

3.8. Brian Owensby (p. 165)

3.8.1. Found that despite being the beneficiaries of modernization, the middle class found itself unable to articulate its power with the political scene.They had given up on the idea of class conflict and emphasized striving at work and at home to attain satisfaction. May have found refuge in individual forms of help such as pscychotherapy and other forms of psychological forms of intervention.

3.9. Foucault (p. 165)

3.9.1. Another way to think about the class linked penchant for psychoanalysis and other psychotherapeutic discourses is reflecting on the processes of professionalization as they occured in Europe in the late 1800s and how the most rigorous forms of repression were actually applied to the privileged and politically domininat classes, rather than the laboring classes.

3.10. Bourgois (p. 170)

3.10.1. Perceived the low paid service work as a form of slavery-ing.

3.11. Pereira (p. 175)

3.11.1. The rule of law is a gap that exists between the univeralism of formal legality and the actual extension of citizenship rights is due to the country's hugely inequitable economy. He dubs this as elitist liberalism or the granting of the right to civil liberties on a differential basis depending on some aspect of the person's status (neighborhood, profession, skin color, gender or something else.

3.12. Zaluar

3.12.1. The local logic dictates that protecting favelas from outsiders - intruders, bandits from other favelas - are of utmost importance (p. 183)

3.12.2. Rio's gang culture is a form of organized crime but it lacks centralization and orgainzation (p. 188)

3.12.3. Calculated the number of homicides in Rio has tripled between 1980 and 1995, rising from 2, 826 murders in 1980 to 8, 408 in 1994 (p. 202)

3.13. Human Rights Watch/Americas (p. 189)

3.13.1. Refers to 5 types of police brutality; police bandits are involved off-duty police killings either to resolve personal vendettas or in response to minor provocation or inconvenience.

3.14. Guillermo O'Donnell

3.14.1. Employed a color coded geographically oriented conception of democracy. Blue zones are areas that have a high degree of state presence, effictive bureaucracy and a properly functioning leagal system. Green zones are those with a high degree of territorial penetration and a lower presense of the state in functional and class terms. Brown zones are those with very low or negligible state presence in both dimentions (p. 198)

3.14.2. Brown zones represent shantytowns (p. 198)

3.15. Center for the Study of Contemporary Culture (p. 201)

3.15.1. Found the risk of being a vitctim of homicide in Rio is low during infancy, rises spectacularly during adolescence, reaching its peak in the 20 - 24 year age group and dropping off as age increases.

3.16. Cardia (p. 202)

3.16.1. Violence seems to affect males and females in the same age group - approximately 22 boys dies for each girl in the 15 - 24 age range (p. 202)

3.17. Holloway (p. 204)

3.17.1. Police institutions developed during the 19th century and were designed to address the problem of disorder in the streets experienced by the elite when slavery was nearing its end (p. 204)

3.18. New node

4. Brazilian Government

4.1. NGOs

4.1.1. Ilha Grande Prison (p. 137)

4.1.2. Fundacao Nacional do Bem-Estar Menor (FUNABEM) The state's child correctional institution (p. 143)

4.2. Police

5. Brazilian Class

5.1. Upper/Middle Class

5.1.1. Has a fascincation with a range of spirituality as well as a range of psychotherapeutic practices (p. 165)

5.2. Low/Working Class

5.2.1. Felicidade Eterna Gloria Pedro Paulo (dead) Fernanda Anita Filomena Soneca Tiago Zeca (dead) Felix 2 former lover's children Mirelli, Josefa, Denise (cousins to Gloria) Celina (Gloria's Sister) Lucas Marta Gangs Dilmar, chief gang leader (p. 168) Braga - chief in the early 1990s (p. 184) Ivo - one of the founding fathers of Felicidade Eterna - chief in the early 1980s (p. 183)