Unit 1 Chapters 1 and 2

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Unit 1 Chapters 1 and 2 by Mind Map: Unit 1 Chapters 1 and 2

1. Pericles is the main ruler during time frame, and is credited for the thriving democracy. He is believed to be the creator of the Olympics as we now know it. Ultimately Pericles was his own demise, losing in the Peloponessian war to Sparta, ending the Athens Golden era.

2. Prehistory can be defined as the time before writing systems.

3. Literature/Music

3.1. The Iliad, The Persian Wars, The Peloponnesian War,Theogony, The Republic

3.1.1. Incorporated different modes of music,and the Pythagorus music theory Greek literature is still revered around the world today, and is included in some of the most read books worldwide to this date.

4. Art/Sculptures/Architecture

4.1. The Greeks gave us so much in terms of art, architecture, and sculptures.

4.1.1. Classical style, which we still see often today, is attributed to the Greeks The Archaic period was essential to Greek art, giving us the Hellenic, and many other free standing sculptures. Greeks believed heavily in the beauty of the human body, in the importance of symmetry and balance, as well as often creating beauty out of simplicity.

5. Olympics

5.1. Ancient Greek is where the Olympic Games all started. It is the oldest standing still going human competition.

6. Philosophy

6.1. PreSocratic, which was pre Socrates. A more natural philosophy time period.

6.1.1. Socrates is considered at the forefront of the development of philosophy. He believed in questioning everything and getting to the bottom of all truths. He is the creator of the Socratic Method of Teaching.Also believed heavily in virtue and reasoning. Plato, a student of Socrates, was next in line. The Allegory of the Cave is one of the most prevalent stories still to date. Aristotle was next in line, being on of Plato’s pupils. He believed heavily that government should be influenced by the constituency of the middle class, and was very outspoken on many matters pertaining to the government.

7. Athens Golden Age 480-430 B.C.E.

7.1. Ultimately came out “on top” out of all the city states, mainly due to their advancement in infrastructure and politics.

7.1.1. Unlike rest of city states, they no longer used oligarchy system, instead implementing democracy extremely similar to the one we have in USA.

8. Greek City States 750-480 B.C.E.

9. The Heroic Age 1,200-750 B.C.E.

9.1. Extremely important to the advancement of Greek history, as the literatures of the Iliad and the Odyssey became to be due to Homer. Prior to that, much of Greek history was passed orally.

9.2. Very competitive in terms of business and advancement of each of their respective cultures, which although following the same Gods, were drastically different.

9.2.1. Although competitive, would come together to defend the country as a whole, which was prudent to their survival against the Persian empire. Their battles came to an end around 480, which then led to the beginning of the Athenaean Golden Era.

10. Mycenaean 1,600 -1,200 B.C.E.

10.1. Militant and aggressive minded civilization.

10.1.1. Revered for their structures , palaces and tombs especially.

11. Chapter 2

12. Chapter 1

13. Ancient Egypt 3,100 to ~ 1,085 B.C.E.

13.1. Separated by four different time periods; Early Dynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom

13.1.1. Egyptian women received treatment and respect unlike any other culture of its time. They were revered, and given much independence. Egyptian art is one of the most timeless imagery. From the wall paintings, to pyramids, tombs, and their sculptures, it is still relevant in todays society.

14. Literature

14.1. Gilgamesh: The First Epic. Considered by many still to be one of the greatest stories of all time. Showed the depths to which man had grown with its use of all the emotions and many different events and circumstances around the main character.

14.1.1. Babylon’s Hammurabi code.Established written law was a monumental sign of change. Egypt did not have any great works of literature, but provided many scriptures, wall writings, evidence of school books, and other journaling of pharaohs mostly. Centered on the island of Crete. Very sea oriented lifestyle.

15. Mesopotamia ~3,500 B.C.E.

15.1. Tigers and Euphrates; greatly allowed the civilization and culture of Mesopotamia to flourish

15.1.1. Began the competing of civilizations Class system was upper and lower; no middle class. Began the signs of poly religion.

15.2. The “Land Between Rivers”

16. Paleolithic 7 million to 10,000 B.C.E.

16.1. Primitive tools began to be used for every day purposes, most often being stone. “Tool making represents beginning of culture.”(ch.1, pg.2, Landmarks in Humanities)

16.2. Hunter/Gatherer

17. Neolithic 8,000 to 2,000 B.C.E.

17.1. Began incorporating use of metals in their tools.

17.1.1. Farming became a large source of food. Society begins to become more advanced in architecture as well as Changed the way we “worked”, created the class systems.

18. Mesolithic 10,000 to 8,000 B.C.E.

18.1. Stone use became more advanced over time.

18.1.1. Much shorter time period than Paleo or Neolithic Domesticated plants and animals.

19. Aegean 3,000-1,200 B.C.E.

19.1. Undiscovered until the 19th century. The “Lost city of Troy”.