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TONICITY (1) by Mind Map: TONICITY (1)

1. THE OLD AND THE NEW

1.1. 3.6 We accent new info and deaccent old.

1.2. 3.7 -Synonyms, hypernyms are deaccented. -Hyponyms are accented Predictable meaning given by the context. -e.g, what time is it? It's 'half past ten.

1.3. 3.8 Prospective and implied giveness

1.3.1. Word that are about to be repeated. e.g, the 'red shirt, |and the 'bkack shirt. Tonicity depends on the speaker's mental planning.

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES

2.1. 3.1: On a stressed syllable. Stress syllable of the las important word

2.2. 3.2 On or near the las word

2.2.1. *If the final word is not accented, the núcleos goes on the estoy one. *Initial, mames of letreros and numerals trates like separated words.

2.3. 3.3 Content and function words

2.3.1. The núcleos goes on the LLI. 1) Nouns, adjectives, most verbs, most adverbs. 2) Pronouns, prepositions, articles, aux verbs, modals. 3) Function words only bears the nucleos on especial cases

2.4. 3.4 Compounds.

2.4.1. Stress on the first element E.g , 'Grandmother Separated elements: Opened compounds. E.g, library book Compounds can be nested, If the outer compounds is single- stressed, the núcleos will go on the first element. Credit card bill The nucleos goes on the LLI unless for contraste involved. Be carefull with compound phrases. E.g, the great de'pression.

2.5. 3.5 Double stressed Compounds.

2.5.1. -The main stressbon the las element. E,g, Christmas 'Eve. -The first element of a Double stressed may also be accented as the Onset. Examples are: -Propers mames, names of roads, names of institutions, Compounds in which the first element is the name of a ingredient. -Exceptions: Lexical stress before the main stress is accentable. After the lexical stress is not accentable. Christmas 'pudding. Exeptions:

3. FOCUS

3.1. 3.9 Broad and Narrow focus

3.1.1. Concentration of the attention on a particular place of the message. -Broad: everything into focus. -Narrow: selects a part of the message, focus domain, the nucleos marks the end of a focus domain ( it start on the onset, and ends on the nucleos). -Neutral tonicity: nucleos on the LLI. e.g, What did Susan eat? A 'sandwich. Different focus domain can have the same nuclear tone. e.g, 1- 'tell me about ver. And 2- What kind of car did she drive? 1- she drove a Ford Fie'esta. 2- she drove a Ford Fiesta. *Focus can be ambiguos.

3.2. 3.10 Contrastive Focus

3.2.1. A kind of Narrow focus "Explicit'. -The nuclear tone draws attention to a contrast the speaker is making. Any Word can be accented by contrast, including a function Word. e.g,' I' m reading a book.| What are 'you doing? - Double- contrast narrouw focus. e.g, you've| got\better,|but vI|haven't. - Result of a match: between the names and the results together, and between the scores. In case of a drawn Game only the names. e.g, 'Boca| 'Three| 'river|'one Boca 'three| River 'one. Boca 'three|'river one. -Implicit contrast: the hearer is left to infer the other term un the contras that is implied.

3.3. 3.11 Pronouns and demonstratives

3.3.1. Pronouns, determiners, verb to be,idioms including fixed tonicity, idiomatic expressions in which we Focus on a Pronouns, fossilizes idiomatic expressions said with a particular intonation, possessives, demonstratives are accented for contrast. e.g, I know what 'she did,| but what 'you did? -Final "there" usually attracts the nucleos, not mentioned before. e.g, follow 'me! Hola ir right 'there!

3.4. 3.12 Reflexive, Reciprocal, and Indefinite Pronoun.

3.4.1. -The subject and object are the same. - Do sth without help. - For contrast. - Emphasis. - Informal regional English Reflexive Pronoun " myself" replaces by "me". - Reciprocal: each other, one another not contrastes/ not accented. - Indefinite Pronoun: not accented, only for Emphasis. -" Or something: not accented when used at the end of the sentense. e.g, I myself do not like pizza.

3.5. 3.13 Contrastive Focus overrides other factors

3.5.1. - Put the nucleos on a "given" for contrast when we correcto another person. - If there is new información following the Contrastive nucleos, ir has to ve Made un a new IP. -Contrast Focus overrides lexical stress patterns of estoy stressed Compounds, names of localities. - We may even Focus on part of a word only ( the nucleos goes on a syllable different from the lexical one that bears the Main stress. - Preffixes/ suffixes: receive contrastive Focus. - Negativo is beber overriden, only If it is undone. e,g. ' rather 'unfriendly. i dos 'not. She has green shirt. Oh, 'not vgreen,| it was \blue.

3.6. 3.14 Contrastive Focus on Polarity

3.6.1. -Positive or negative Polarity, Marked negative - To deny the truthnof a negative proposition. Focus on word indicating positive Polarity Marked positive ( nucleos on the verb to be ir auxiliary verb). - The pro- Form "do" nucleos when signals a change of polarity. - Un negations followed by a new lexical item, the nucleos goes as normal. On the LLI. - Restatement of an existing polarity. Contrast involving subject and polarity, focus on the subject. Vfall-rise tone. Device for adding emphasis to an exclamación ( implícito contrast) - Polarity with tense: Focus on an auxiliary ir modal verb to emphasize. e.g, You are not invited. Oh, but I \am invited! She promised she would go. But she finally \did go. Si vJessica is ready,| but vJohn isn't.

3.7. 3.15 Dynamic focus

3.7.1. - Varying tonicity: changing the accent patterns, altering the focus to Put the nucleos. - On different places: to express different kind of contrastive focus ( Broad, Narrouw, Contrastive Focus).

4. NUCLEOS ON A FUNCTION WORD

4.1. 3.16 Narrow focus

4.1.1. Narrow focus: yes/no ir its equivalents. e.g, Have You finished? 'yes| I 'have Yes I'have

4.2. 3.17 Prepositions ( accented for contrast).

4.2.1. - Broad focus, 2 cases: strabded/ remnant of a Prepositional phrase functioning as the complement of the verb to be. - When a sentence contains lexical subject rather than a Pronoun. The nucleos goes on the LLI. e.g, Look at this things!| 'What's it 'for? Who's 'Miguel with?

4.3. 3.18 Wh + verb to be

4.3.1. - The nucleos goes on the verb to be. -Change of tonicity when answering. -Verb to be consisting on more than a verb. - Un indirect quesrions. - Demonstratives. - With lexical material instead of a pronoun ir follows the eome of the LLI. -Intonation/ Idioms ( tonicity not easy explained accenting the verb to be. e.g, Who 'is it? How 'are you? 'Fine!| How are 'you? How' s it 'been?

4.4. 3.19 Others function words that attract the nucleos.

4.4.1. -Too/ Anyhow and their Synonyms/ as well, and all, negative either. - When used in the meaning "also" is accented. -"Too" refers to the accented item that inmediately precedes is. - Anyway/ Anyhow: accented with reinforcing fall. e.g, I think you don't have to go.|Why not? I'll go 'anyway.

5. FINAL, BUT NOT NUCLEAR

5.1. 3.20 Empty words and Pro- forms.

5.1.1. -Empty words/ vague general Nouns, Plural o mass nouns when becomes some or any, Virtual forms more or less synonymously with some and any, One after an adjective , are not accented. - Some is accented bearing fall- rise núcleos while the following noun NOT, Numerals (one, two..) not when one is used as Pronoun or proform, So as a proform, Expressions like the one, Do when substitutes a verb, are all accented. e.g, What did yoy buy? | I bought some 'presents and things.

5.2. 3.21 Vocatives

5.2.1. -Calling by the name to a person depending partly of where they stand. - To indicate who we are talking to. - Final vocatives are not accented even if it appears to include new information. e.g, 'Peter! What are you 'doing? Here's my \exam, Teacher Andrea.

5.3. 3.22 Reporting clauses

5.3.1. - Words like "she said, she asked" followed by qouted words are aout of Focus to F form the tail of the IP. -Rythmically separated IP's, but tonally part If the same IP.

5.4. 3.23 Adverbs of time and place

5.4.1. - Adverbs un general are accented. - Adverbial phrases of time and place not accented. - Sense of the verb incomplete without the final adverbial. They are un focus and bear the nucleos. - when it is part of a separated IP. - Adverbs and adverbials phrases on focus bear accent. e.g She's coming to 'dinner tomorrow. Pu it 'on the table.

5.5. 3.24 Other unfocus adverbs and adverbials.

5.5.1. -Descriptives: At the end of the clause when they modify a verb bear the nucleos is accented. - "Enough" when follows an adjective is anaccented. -"indeed" accented. Not when ir is used to show surprise. -"Again" at thenend of a clause is accented. - Etcétera and it's Synonyms are not accented. e.g, I'll see you on ' monday , then. Coul you tell me that ' again?

6. PHRASAL VERBS

6.1. Verb+ adv particle.

6.1.1. They are lexically double-stressed. e.g, I'll leave you carry 'on, then.

6.2. 3.26 Verb + prep particle.

6.2.1. -Single- stressed on the verb. The particle accented for contrast. - The nucleos locatwd onbthe verb itself, nucleos on prepositional verb.- Cases of passivization and wh quesrions, the prep goes on the tail. - Exceptions with prep that have more than one syllable. Stressed, - When there is a contrastive focus ( implicit or Explicit') the nucleos readily goes on the prep. - Phrasal verbs that include both adverb particle and prep are Double-stressed. e.g, the children are un the bedroom. Please! 'Look at them. - Loo ' after. / With' out.

6.3. 3.27 Adverb or prep

6.3.1. - In, on, at may be adverbs or prep. - Adverbs at the end of the clause attract the nucleos, but prep repel it. e.g, I was walking 'by. What are you ' talking about?

6.4. 3.28 Separated Particles.

6.4.1. - When the particle of a Phrasal verb has been separated ( moved to a position after the object) the object bears the nucleos ir it is lexically filled. - If the object is a pronoun, the nucleos goes on the adv particle un the regular way, even if the object is lexically filled but it is already given. - Other constructions involving adverbs, they are not accented. - Be on, Be about, have (got) on behave like prepositional phrases. - In contrastive focus, the separated particle can be accented even after a lexical object. e.g, Take your jacket 'off. She got a ' blue ' jacket on.

7. NUCLEOS ON LAST NOUN

7.1. 3.29 Final verbs and Adjectives

7.1.1. - Constructions with a verb at the end of a sentence or clause are not accented. - In final defining relative clause. When there is no preceding noun to attract the nucleos, it goes on the LLI ( verb or adjective). - Whwn the NP is lexical, the nucleos goes on the noun. - When the NP is not lexical, it is a pronoun ir empty Word, the nucleos goes on the verb. - In questions that involve a syntactic movement moving a NO to an earlier position. It leaves the verb at the end. - Idiomatic and fossilized expressions: fixed tonicity with tendency to place the nucleos on a noun rather than a verb. e.g, I have my 'hair cut. Tell me what to 'do. 'There's a bad boy.

7.2. 3.30 Events

7.2.1. - In event sentence describing eventos where the verb is intransitive. The nucleos is located on the subject. - Non-lexical (Pronouns)subject. - When an adjective involves an adjective as well as a verb, the noun receives the nuclear accent. - Description of the weather. - Statements related to umpleasant body sensations. e.g, The 'window's Opened. It's a sunny 'day .

7.3. 3.31 Reusing the other speaker's words.

7.3.1. - The second speaker wishes to comment on the material, he accents it. - The echoed words conveys new information. - The first speaker ask the second for information, the same word is reused. - Comment on the second speaker's words. e.g, I can't 'finish it. You can't 'finish it?

8. WHAT IS KNOWN

8.1. 3.33 Knowlwge: Shared, Common, and inputed.

8.1.1. - Shared Knowledge: The ideas expressed are treated as implicit, already known by the speaker and the adresee. - Common Knowledge: with people in general. - there are various cases where common Knowledge is focused on by the speaker. - On hearing some reports. - Comments on the weather. - Inputed: when the hearer knows what the speaker is talking. - intensifying words bear the nucleos ( very, extremely) - Ironically exclamations. - placing the nucleos on the usual place(LLI) , alternative version. Not imput on the hearer. e.g, It's an 'awful 'day. 'That's |'all in'deed.

8.2. 3. 34 Difficult Cases of Tonicity.

8.2.1. - Adresse rejecting the common kwoledge. e.g, That's typical|of 'teachers. But I' m not a ' teacher.