Fermented foods and beverages

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Fermented foods and beverages by Mind Map: Fermented foods and beverages

1. Dairy fermentation

1.1. Milk

1.1.1. Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages Beer from Cereals Wheat Beer Oat Beer Rice Beer gum and Millet Beer Maize Beer Wine from Fruit and Vegetable Juices prevention of toxic effects of mycotoxins - fermentation degrades the mycotoxins from the fermented foods. this could prevent the toxic effects that caused by the mycotoxins. Fruit Wine Tree-sap Wine Sugarcane Wine Sugar-palm Wine

1.1.2. Milk acidified with a small piece of lamb's or calf's stomach, or with a portion of dried sour milk

1.2. Cheese

1.2.1. Process of Production of Cheese 1. Pasteurization To kill spoilage microorganisms contain in the milk. 2. Addition of starter culture Allow the bacteria to begin fermentation and control the growth of undesirable bacteria 3. Coagulation Protein and fats in milk will separate from the whey and form curds 4. Cutting and cooking Leads the moisture loss of curds that help separate the whey from curds 5. Whey extraction Remove excess liquid (whey) from curds 6. Salting Salt added as flavor to ripen the cheese

2. Types of fermentation

2.1. 1. Lactic acid fermentation - Example: Cheeses, yogurt, sour cream

2.1.1. 2. Alcohol fermentation - Example: alcoholic drinks and wines 3. Fungal fermentation (Solid state fermentation) the basis for the manufacturing of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer 4. Pediococcus Alcohol fermentation produces ethanol, an alcohol. The second reaction is catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidaze NADH to NAD+ and reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol.

2.1.2. Lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation happen under anaerobic conditions and produce a little amount of ATP.

2.1.3. Sugar added to increase the production of lactic acids. Whilst, salt is added to eliminate pathogens and suppress natural contaminants

3. pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid

3.1. Sometimes not all raw food is good. The video above explained why sometimes fermented foods are better than raw foods.

3.1.1. EXAMPLE: Cheese is a fermented dairy product derived from milk. The process of making them include acidification, coagulation, separating curds and whey, salting, shaping and ripening.This video explain the process of cheese making in easier way. Involvement of starter culture, rennet and salt help in fermentation process of cheese.

4. Safety and side effects

4.1. High probiotic content of fermented foods may cause initial and temporary increase in gas and bloating.

4.2. Fermented foods rich in probiotics including yogurt, sauerkraut and kimchi which naturally contain biogenic amines produced during fermentation. Amines break down the amino acids in fermented foods by bacteria. The most common ones found in probiotic-rich foods include histamine and tyramine.Some people may sensitive to histamine and other amines, and experience headaches after eating fermented foods. This may due to amines stimulate the central nervous system. They can increase or decrease blood flow, which can trigger headaches and migraines. One study found that low-histamine diets reduced headaches in 75% of participants.

4.3. High-sugar ferment foods have a high risk of heart disease.

4.4. Ferment foods and beverage may cause headaches and migraines.

4.5. Ferment foods and beverage may cause histamine intolerance

4.5.1. Histamine is plentiful in fermented foods. Its intolerance may due to the insufficient specific enzyme produce by body to digest it. This can cause a range of histamine intolerance symptoms. The most common are itching, headaches or migraines, runny nose (rhinitis), eye redness, fatigue, hives and digestive symptoms include diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. However, histamine intolerance can also cause more severe symptoms, including asthma, low blood pressure, irregular heart rate, circulatory collapse, sudden psychological changes (such as anxiety, aggressiveness, dizziness and lack of concentration) and sleep disorders.

4.6. Ferment foods and beverage may create an antibiotic resistance.

4.6.1. Probiotic bacteria can carry genes that confer resistance to antibiotics. These antibiotic resistance genes may pass to other bacteria found in the food chain and gastrointestinal tract via horizontal gene transfer. The most common antibiotic resistance genes carried by fermented foods are against erythromycin and tetracycline, which are used to treat respiratory infections and some sexually transmitted diseases.

5. Microbiology of acid food fermentation

5.1. Mesophilic LAB

5.1.1. 1. Lactococcus

5.1.2. 2. Leuconostoc use solid substrate. Example: Tempeh and koji-making for soy sauce

5.1.3. 3.Lactobacillus

5.1.4. 4.Pediococcus

5.2. Thermophilic LAB

5.2.1. 1.Streptococcus thermophilus

5.2.2. 2.Lactobacillus delbrueckii

5.2.3. 3.Lactobacillus helveticus

6. Types of Fermented foods

6.1. Meat-based fermentation

6.1.1. Ham, fermented sausage

6.2. Fish-based fermentation

6.2.1. Fish sauce, fish paste

6.3. Cereal-based fermentation

6.3.1. Beer

6.4. Vegetable based fermentation

6.4.1. Pickles, kimchi

6.5. Soybean-based fermentation

6.5.1. Reduction of toxic or anti-nutritive factors

6.5.2. Soy sauce

6.6. Classification of Foods

6.6.1. based on shelf-life

6.6.2. based on nutrients

6.7. Fruit based

6.7.1. Grapes- red wine or white wine

6.7.2. Apple- apple cider

6.8. Chemical properties

7. Functional Starter Cultures

7.1. A stater culture can be defined as microbial preparation of large numbers of cells of at least one microorganisms to be added to a raw material to produce a fermented food by accelerating and steering its fermentation process.

7.1.1. Food preservation and safety

7.1.2. Improvement of texture

7.1.3. Production of aroma and flavour

7.1.4. Production of nutraceuticals

7.1.5. Probiotics

7.1.6. Reduced fermentation time

7.1.7. Increase the yield

7.1.8. Produce antimicrobial substances

8. Health Benefits of Fermented food

8.1. Alleviating Cholesterol levels.

8.1.1. impair the synthesis of cholesterol .For example: L. acidophilus has the ability to lower serum cholesterol levels.

8.1.2. Consume moderate red wine can raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in our body.

8.2. Prevention of toxic effects of mycotoxins

8.2.1. S.cerevisiae has the ability to bind mycotoxins. Incorrect temperatures, fermentation times, or unsterile equipment can cause the food to spoil, making it unsafe to eat. Example: S. cerevisiae in bread & alcohol making

8.3. Anticarcinogenic effect and antihypertensive activity

8.3.1. Prevent cancer initiation or suppresion of initiated cancer.

8.3.2. two antihypertensive peptides can inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts angiotensinogen I to angiotensinogen II, which is potent vasoconstrictor.

8.4. pH regulation

8.4.1. Production of lactic acid and other organic acid can help to keep large intestine pH at healthy level. Acidic pH can inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria. In traditional fermented products, the process of fermentation is spontaneous and uncontrolled. The products are often obtained under local climatic conditions, and therefore the sensory characteristics and the quality are variable

8.5. Probiotics

8.5.1. Promote positive health impact in lactose intolerance, urinary tract infections in women, gut function, Traveler's diarrhea, infantile diarrhea, antibiotic associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, immune function, infant health and others.

8.5.2. Most probiotics belong to the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.

8.6. Improve digestibility of fermented food

8.6.1. fermented dairy- lactose intolerance

8.6.2. fermented legumes - oligosaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides

8.7. Preservation and flavor enhancement

8.7.1. Preservation by using the method of fermentation can increase the shelf life of the food product

8.7.2. Can make the food become more digestible

8.7.3. The aroma and flavour of the food product will be enhanced

8.8. Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.

8.8.1. Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Beer would contain vitamin B6, which would protect against heart diseases by preventing the build-up of a compound called homocysteine. Increased Bone Density: Moderate beer consumption would increase bone density, thereby preventing the risk of fractures and osteoporosis

8.9. antioxidant compound


9.1. 1. Ethanol Fermentation : An alcoholic fermentation includes by-products of ethanol and carbon dioxide

9.2. 2. Lactic acid fermentation. Yeast strains and bacteria convert starches or sugars into lactic acid, requiring no heat in preparation. These anaerobic chemical reactions, pyruvic acid uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen (NADH) to form lactic acid and NAD+. (Lactic acid fermentation also occurs in human muscle cells. During strenuous activity, muscles can expend adenosine triphosphate (ATP) faster than oxygen can be supplied to muscle cells, resulting in lactic acid buildup and sore muscles. In this scenario, glycolysis, which breaks down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules and doesn’t use oxygen, produces ATP.) Lactic acid bacteria are vital to producing and preserving inexpensive, wholesome foods, which is especially important in feeding impoverished populations. This method makes sauerkraut, pickles, kimchi, yogurt, and sourdough bread.

9.2.1. 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation: Refer to two means of producing lactic acid -Homolactic Fermentation: production of lactic acid only -Heterolactic fermentation: production of lactic acid and other substances such as acids and alcohols The presence of natural microbial flora in raw materials may not be same. Therefore, it is difficult to produce a product with the same characteristic over a long period of time. There is a chance of product failure- due to growth of undesirable flora and foodborne diseases by pathogens TRADITIONAL FERMENTATION METHOD

9.3. 3. Acetic acid fermentation. Starches and sugars from grains and fruit ferment into sour tasting vinegar and condiments. Examples include apple cider vinegar, wine vinegar, and kombucha.

10. Microbial Food Cultures

10.1. Microbial food cultures are safe live bacteria, yeasts or moulds used in food production which are in themselves a characteristic food ingredient.

10.2. Fermented food type

10.2.1. Doenjang(soy bean paste) Contained simple microbial communities dominated by Tetragenococcus and Staphylococcus

10.2.2. Narezushi (fermented fish) Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis dominate the process as identified by culturing

10.2.3. Kimchi (cabbage, raddish) Kimchi is dominated by Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella

10.2.4. Cocoa bean

10.2.5. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus is identified as the dominant species

10.2.6. Tempeh (Soy bean) Tempeh is made by mixing cooked soy beans with tempeh starter containing fungal sporangiospores of mainly Rhizopus oligosporus, Rhizopus oryzae and sometimes Mucor spp.

10.3. Kefir ( kefir grains)

10.3.1. Bacteria: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Acetobacter , Yeast: Naumovozyma, Kluyveromyces, Kazachstania

11. Fermentation processs

11.1. Natural fermentation

11.1.1. Many raw material used in fermentation contain both desirable and associated product

11.1.2. Product: some desirable aroma resulting from the metabolism of associated flora

11.2. Back slopping fermentation

11.2.1. Chance of product failure and foodborne disease are also high

11.3. Controlled fermentation

11.3.1. Retention of product characteristics over a long period of time may be difficult because of changes in microbial types.

11.3.2. The starting materials which may be heat-treated are inoculated with a high populations (one million /ml) of a pure culture of single or mixed strains or species of microbes (starter culture)

11.3.3. Less chance of product failure and foodborne diseases

11.3.4. No growth of desirable secondary flora As a result, the product may not have some delicate flavor characteristic

12. Most common groups of microorganism involved in food fermentation

12.1. 1. Bacteria

12.1.1. Lactobacilliaceae - ability to produce lactic acid from CHO

12.1.2. Bacillus - from fermentation of legumes Acetobacter - produce acetic acid

12.2. 2. Yeast

12.2.1. Produce enzymes result in desirable biochemical reactions such as production of wine Incubation conditions are set for the optimum growth of the starter culture

12.3. 3. Mold

12.3.1. Produce enzymes of commercial importance such as pectinase

12.3.2. Example: species of Aspergillus used in citric acid from apple pomace waste Penicillium species used in ripening and flavour development in cheese

13. Examples of fermented beverage

13.1. 1. Wine - It is made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat.

13.2. 2. Kombucha - It is made from tea and sugar and fermented with a scoby, often referred to as "the mother." A scoby is what gets the fermentation going, it's a mix of bacteria and yeast. The drink is often flavored with herbs or fruit. A tiny amount of alcohol is sometimes produced during fermentation-less than 0.5 percent alcohol by volume. However, some kombuchas have been found to contain up to 2 or 3 percent alcohol.

13.3. - prone to happen on people who have compromised immune system - may cause pneumonia, systemic infections, sepsis and endocarditis

13.4. 4. Beer -made from barley malts, hops and water. -fermented by beer yeasts to develop flavours of beer. Basically, beer yeasts convert the wort, which is sugar component of beer, into alcohol with by-products of carbon dioxide and water. Beer fermentation normally takes 2 weeks to complete.

13.5. 5. Fermented milk -created when milk ferments with specific kinds of bacteria called Lactobacilli or Bifidobacteria. -the milk is partially digested by the bacteria. -makes the milk product easier to digest, especially for people who have milk allergies or are lactose-intolerant

14. Disadvantages of fermented products

14.1. cause by production of excess gas after harmful gut bacteria and fungi are killed by probiotics

14.2. Bloating

14.3. Histamine intolerance

14.3.1. causing inflammatory reaction

14.4. Foodborne illness

14.4.1. cause by contamination of bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli

14.5. Infections from probiotics

14.6. Antibiotic resistance

14.6.1. cause by genes carry by probiotic bacteria

14.7. Headache and migraines

14.7.1. There are people who sensitive to histamine and other amines and cause experience headaches after eating fermented foods. This is due to amines stimulate the central nervous system and also increase or decrease blood flow, which also trigger headaches and migraines.

14.8. Increase the risk of gastric cancer

14.8.1. A study indicates that high consumption of fermented soy food increase the risk of gastric cancer.

15. What is Fermentation

15.1. Anaerobic process

15.2. Pickling on the other hand involve a process of immersing foods in acidic solution such as vinegar and the use of heat to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Pickling changes both the taste and texture of the food.

15.3. headache and migranes

16. Advantages of fermented food

16.1. Help in mental health by reducing anxiety and depression

16.1.1. Lactobaccillus helveticus

16.1.2. Bifidobacterium longum

16.2. New desirable taste and texture given to final product.

16.3. Probiotic found in fermented food:

16.3.1. Lower risk of heart disease by reducing blood pressure and decrease belly fat.

16.3.2. help in weight loss by decrease belly fat.

16.4. Help to neutralize anti nutrient substances like phytic acid in legumes

16.4.1. Produce 2 ATP through glycolysis

16.5. Help increase the availability of nutrient for our bodies to absorb.

16.5.1. improve our digestive health by probiotic that produces help in restore friendly bacteria in our gut. boosts our immune system due to the high probiotic content that reduce risk of infection Enable our body absorb more live nutrients in food.

16.6. Aid the immune system because gut produce anti tumor or antibiotic substances.

17. a. Dairy Fermentation:Back Slopping- raw materials inoculated with previous batch with desired characteristics -Exp: Kefir, Yoghurt

17.1. b. Vegetables Fermentation-Sauerkraut : -Rely on development of ideal conditions (Brining to initiate the proper microbial succession) -Dominant microbial group change as conditions in the fermentation changes

17.1.1. c. Ragi -Rice cake start culture-mixed culture of microorganisms -Exp: Alcoholic beverage, tapai

17.2. kefir is fermented by both bacteria and yeast that are present together as “kefir grains” which are a gelatinous culture. It’s important to shake the bottle well to distribute the grains and make the kefir creamy, smooth, and easy to drink.

17.2.1. Yogurt is fermented by bacteria that can digest the lactose in milk. Two or many live bacterial strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp in abundance. These bacteria are called as probiotics.The bacteria produce lactic acid that coagulates the protein in milk, rendering yogurt thick and slightly sour in taste. LB can produce a very high amount of lactic acid by metabolizing lactose. Set yogurt, stirred yogurt, drink yogurt and frozen yogurt are several forms of yogurt. d. Sour cream is made from high-pasteurized cream which it is contain 18%-20% of fat. It is a dairy product. High-pasteurized cream was fermented by using the bacteria starter to make it aromatic and taste sour. The example of starter that use to made sour cream is Lactic Biovar, Diacetylactis and L-mesenteroids. e. Buttermilk was produced by the fermentation of skimmed milk which used lactic acid bacteria as the starter. Lactic acid bacteria give aromatic flavor and smooth viscous texture.

18. The world without zymology (no fermentation by yeast and bacteria)

18.1. no alcoholic drinks - cultural and social impact (no religious or ritual use, no pubs and bars in which to socialize)

18.1.1. Palm wine in West Africa is high in vitamin B12, which is very important for people with low meat intake, and who subsist primarily on a vegetarian diet. Idli (a lactic acid bacteria fermented product consumed in India) is high in thiamine and riboflavin. fermentation may serve to improve the nutritional value and protein quality of food staples, by inactivating naturally occurring toxins, as with cassava.

18.2. impact on: biofuels and agricultural feeds. Fermentation helps to digest our waste.

18.3. impact on: transformation of medicine - antibiotic penicillin (Penicillium mould)

18.4. low variety of foods - leavened bread, cheese (lactic acid), sauerkraut, creme fraiche and yogurt (lactic acid), Kimchi, vinegar (acetic acid), olives, chocolate, coffee, tea, soy sauce, miso, tofu.

19. Types on Basis of Culture

19.1. Batch Fermentation

19.1.1. Sterile nutrient substrate, inoculated, grow until no more of the product is being made, "harvested" and cleaned out for another run.

19.1.2. Advantages: 1. low investment costs 2. simple control and operation 3. easy-to-maintain complete sterilization 4. low risk of contamination

19.2. Fed-Batch Fermentation

19.2.1. Microorganisms inoculated and grow under batch regime at a certain time, nutrients added throughout the remaining time, entire culture suspension is removed at the end of each run. Factors of feeding depends on: substrate limitation in broth Time profile of feeding depends on remaining of non excessive substrate.

19.2.2. Substrate increments as the fermentation progresses started as batch-wise with a small substrate concentration.

19.3. Continuous Fementation

19.3.1. consumed nutrients are replaced and toxic metabolites are removed from the culture.

19.3.2. fresh medium is continuously added to the fermentor, while used medium and cells are harvested in the same time.

19.3.3. Addition rate = Removal rate, culture volume constant. The maximum working volume vessel not limit the amount of fresh medium / additional feed solution. Constant-power-to-volume strategy - keep working volume constant - simplifies culture scale-up

20. Disadvantages of fermentation process

20.1. Product may become unfit for consumption

20.2. Use too much energy

20.3. Slow production and long time need

20.4. Difficult to scale up

20.5. Difficult to control the process parameters

20.6. High impurity product

20.7. Production carries a high cost and more energy

20.7.1. Produce lactate which is toxic to cell

21. Stages of fermentation

21.1. Primary fermentation

21.1.1. microbes rapidly set to work on initial raw ingredients Examples: food, vegetables, dairy

21.1.2. microbes present in surrounding liquid to prevent putrefying bacteria from colonizing the food instead. • increased variety – more variety of nutritious foods in our diet • increased variety of sensory attributes - new desirable tastes and textures, enhance the aroma and flavor of a product, making it palatable • used as ingredients – important ingredients for variety of dishes • nutritional quality improvement • pH regulation - Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid and other organic acids • preservation – improve microbiological safety and shelf life of the food product - limiting the growth of spoilage and/ or pathogenic flora in the food product • improve digestibility of fermented food fermented dairy – lactose intolerance fermented legumes – oligosaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides

21.2. Secondary fermentation

21.2.1. longer stages of fermentation that takes place over several days or weeks.

21.2.2. occurs when many yeasts and microbes start to die off and their available food source (the carbohydrates) becomes more scarce.

21.2.3. affects the chemical reactions between the microbes and their environment.

22. Benefits of fermented foods

22.1. • act as probiotics - promote the positive health impact in lactose intolerance, urinary tract infections in woman, gut function, diarrhea and other diseases

22.2. preservation and flavour enhancement - fermentation can increase the shelf life of the food product as well as making the food more digestible by creating new aroma and flavour of the food.

22.2.1. Can boost immune system and reduce the risk of infections like the common cold, which will help to recover faster when sick due to the high content of probiotic.

22.3. Also containing vitamin c, iron and zinc where contributed to a stronger immune system.

22.4. In Socio-Economic

22.4.1. The production of fermented fruit and vegetable products provides income and employment to millions of people around the world For example The production of kimchi in Korea. The production of soy sauce in Indonesia and Japan. The production of table olives, wine, cheeses,cured meats, and pickles in in Europe, especially in Mediterranean countries.

23. How fermentation processes can result in increased vitamin levels in the final product

23.1. Fermentation process helps to increase the bioavailability of the fermented food. It makes riboflavin, folate and vitamin B12 more reabsorble. Pellagra is unusual in communities in which sorghum beer is consumed. Sorghum beer in Southern Africa contains relatively high levels of riboflavin and nicotinic acid.


24.1. Fermented food and beverages are fermented food that have undergone controlled microbial growth and fermentation.

24.1.1. Fermentation is the breakdown of carbohydrate like starch and sugar by bacteria and yeast and an ancient technique of preserving food.

25. Example of Fermented Food

25.1. Kimchi

25.1.1. a traditional fermented, spicy Korean dish

25.1.2. staple food of Koreans and is served with almost every dish in Korean cuisine.

25.2. Tempeh

25.2.1. a traditional Indonesian soy product which made from fermented soybeans.

25.3. Miso

25.3.1. a traditional Japanese fermented paste created from a mixture of soybeans, sea salt and rice koji.

25.4. Fermented Sausage

25.5. natto

25.5.1. a Japanese dish made from soybeans that have fermented with beneficial bacteria.

25.6. sourdough bread

25.6.1. bread made from the fermentation of natural occurring yeast and bacteria in flour.

25.7. wine

25.8. Fermented milk: Kefir

26. Side effects after consume too much fermented foods

26.1. bloating

26.1.1. due to high probiotic content, increase in gas

26.1.2. maybe worse after consuming fiber-rich fermented food:- kimchi and sauerkaut

26.2. histamine intolerance

26.3. headaches and migraines

26.4. foodborne illness

26.5. antibiotics resistance

27. Types of Fermentation Process

27.1. Lactic Acid Fermentation

27.1.1. This fermentation happens when yeast and bacteria convert to starches or sugars into lactic acid in food such as kimchi, pickles and yoghurt. This fermentation happens when the pyruvate molecules in starches or sugars are broken down by yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide molecules to produce wine and beer.

27.2. Ethyl Alcohol Fermentation

27.3. Acetic Acid Fermentation

27.3.1. This fermentation happens when the starches or sugars from grains or fruits into sour tasting vinegar and condiments. There will be taste differences, for examples, taste of apple cider vinegar and apple cider.

28. 3. Kefir - It is a fermented milk drink rich in calcium. The bacteria that ferment the milk help break down lactose which is good for people who are lactose-intolerant.

28.1. Benefits of Kefir: boost our immune system, aids in digestive problem, improve bone health, may combat cancer.

28.1.1. Side effects: Kefir can cause side effects like bloating, nausea, intestinal cramping, and constipation. Dosing: The appropriate dose of kefir depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. Low lactose content: The slow-acting yeasts, late in the fermentation process, break lactose down into ethanol and carbon dioxide.] As a result of the fermentation, very little lactose remains in kefir. People with lactose intolerance are able to tolerate kefir, provided the number of live bacteria present in this beverage consumed is high enough (i.e., fermentation has proceeded for adequate time). It has also been shown that fermented milk products have a slower transit time than milk, which may further improve lactose digestion

29. Bread Fermentation

29.1. process where yeast converts sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol in the absence of oxygen, causing dough to rise.

29.2. Shorter fermentation process leads to less taste, texture and quality, but the shorter mix times and slow fermentation add up to flavorful bread rich in aroma and texture.

29.3. made from milk that has been fermented by friendly bacteria, mainly lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. It helps to improved bone health, reduce the diarrhea caused by antibiotics.

30. Metabolic process in which an organisms converts a CHO such as starch and sugar into alcohol and/ or acid

30.1. Difference between fermentating and pickling:

30.1.1. Fermenting involve a chemical reaction between food's sugars and naturally presenting bacteria, giving its sour flavor. Fermentation does not require acidic liquid or heat and can be done as simple as the use of container and salt.

30.1.2. Fermenting does not involve addition of acid to give a sour flavour while pickling put the food into an acidic brine so that a sour flavour can be produced.

30.1.3. Fermenting does not require any heat while pickling involve the use of heat cause by high levels of histamines and tyramines in fermented food

30.1.4. Fermentation involve probiotic while pickling does not. Pickling kill all the microbes.


31.1. glucose and fructose are converted to lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol and CO2

31.1.1. salt may be added and plays four major roles: influences the type and extent of microbial growth, helps to prevent softening of the vegetable tissue, determines the flavor of the final products and assist in rupturing the fruit membranes, allowing the diffusion of various components into the cover brine solutions used by microbes for growth Some products from a successful fermentation are added to the starting materials, and conditions are set to facilitate the growth of microbes coming from previous culture

32. Types of Fermented beverages

32.1. Wine

32.1.1. fermented from various fruit juices containing fermentable sugars

32.1.2. Grape wine

32.2. Beer

32.2.1. Come from starch-containing products, which undergo enzymatic splitting by diastase, malting, and mashing, before the ferment-able sugars become available for the yeasts and bacteria. The enzymatic splitting of the starch can also be performed either by human saliva, containing amylase, or by molds

32.3. Rice Wine

32.3.1. fermented from cooked rice when mixed with yeast. Undergo Alcohol fermentation. example tapai and lihing

33. Fermentation

33.1. The natural process where microorganisms like yeast and bacteria convert carbohydrates such as sugars and starchs into acid and alcohol.

33.2. Benefits of fermented foods

33.2.1. Improving digestive system

33.2.2. Boost immune system

33.2.3. Food become easier to digest

33.2.4. Some may promote weight loss

34. Common fermented foods include kimchi, sauerkraut, kefir, tempeh, kombucha, and yogurt. These foods may reduce heart disease risk and aid digestion, immunity, and weight loss. Not to mention, fermented foods add tang and zest to your meals and are an excellent addition to a healthy diet.

35. Safety issue

35.1. There is always the risk of microbial contamination especially in spontaneous fermented foods

35.1.1. Since fermentation makes raw materials edible without cooking them

35.2. Food poisoning

35.2.1. Uneven distribution of salt in lactic acid fermented fish products

35.2.2. Contamination of Apergillus flavus in traditional starter cultures

35.3. contamination AFTER the foods have been fermented

35.3.1. Handling them with unclean hands

35.3.2. Letting them come into contact with contaminated proteins (meat or fish)

36. Fermentation

36.1. is a metabolic process of deriving energy from organism compound without the involvement of exogenous oxidizing agent.

36.2. Type of fermentation

36.2.1. lactic acid fermentation - Anaerobic fermentation reaction that occur in animal muscle cell and bacteria. -Glucose and the other six-carbon sugars converted into cellular energy and metabolite lactate. glucose and other six-carbon sugars are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate

36.2.2. alcoholic fermentation converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, which will produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

36.2.3. Fungal fermentation yeast will convert sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen

36.3. Traditonal method fermentation

36.3.1. Dairy fermentation Kefir, yoghurt

36.3.2. Vegetable fermentation Sauekraut

36.4. Industrial fermnetation

36.4.1. use of starter culture; organism isolated,purified and culture in lab.

37. Beer Fermentation - Fermented beverages and well preserved. - Processes are not easy to control and optimize. - Filtering of beer to enhance clearness might have adverse effects, might eliminate the pleasing taste. - Two main phase of beer making : a) First phase mashing b) Second phase fermentation

38. The importance of Fermented foods

38.1. Pickles, Probiotics, and Why Rotten Food Is Good For You

38.2. Increase digestion and absorption

38.2.1. E.g. Fermentation breaks down the lactose in milk to simpler sugars (glucose and galactose).

38.3. Synthesis and availability of nutrients

38.3.1. By boosting the beneficial bacteria in human gut can promote the ability to manufacture Vitamin B and synthesis Vitaman K.

38.4. Immune functions

38.4.1. A large portion of immune system houesed in gut. By consuming fermented food are rich in probiotics bacteria, can support the gut lining as a natural barrier, making the immune system more robust.

38.5. Phythic acid

38.5.1. Found in legumes and seeds. Fermentation reduce the absorption when eaten. Phythic acid can be broken down during fermentation, so the minerals become available.

38.6. Mood and behaviour

39. Example of Fermented Food (TEMPEH)

39.1. Tempeh is a fermented soybean product using Rhizopus species. It is originated from Indonesia . It has a pleasant aroma with nutty mushroom flavour and crunchy texture. It serves as a main dish or meat substitute in diet ,especially among vegetarians. It can be consumed fried, steamed, roasted or boiled.

39.1.1. Tempeh is the source of good quality protein. Tempeh is the source of good quality vegetable protein. Soy protein is highly digestible (92–100%) with all essential amino acids. It is low in methionine but high in lysine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leusine. Tempeh is a functional food with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and antioxidative effects (O'Tootle, 2004). Consumption of tempeh is associated with certain health benefits, such as decreasing body fat and total cholesterol level (Wan Saidatul Syida et al., 2017). It also helps to decrease risk of getting heart disease and stroke as they are free of saturated fat. Besides, it can also help to prevent osteoporosis at the later age. Isoflavones in soybeans increase bone mineral content in post-menopausal women which decreases the possibility of osteoporosis. Other than that, tempeh may also aid in losing weight due to its low caloric value and carbohydrate content. Its antioxidant effects helps to the consumers to protect against diarrhea and reduce the incidence of cancers (Wan Saidatul Syida et al., 2017). Production of tempeh varies between traditional and modern method. Basically, tempeh production is washing, soaking overnight, dehulling, boiling, draining, cooling, inoculating with starter culture, wrapping with banana leaves and incubating for fermentation (Wilson, 1995). An alternative way used to ease dehulling is to boil the soybeans before soaking overnight (Mital & Garg, 1990). The difference is modern production involves utilizing bioprocessing innovation and equipment to improve and assure the quality of tempeh which is not done in the traditional production line (Steinkraus, 2004).

40. How to start wine fermentation.

40.1. 1. Prepare the must (crushed fruit juice). Then, add pectin enzyme and let it sit for 12-24 hours.

40.2. 2. Check the pH of the must and fix it to pH 3.0.

40.3. 3. Measure and adjust the sugar level. Target 18 - 25 degree Brix depending to the target percentage of alcohol. More sugar at this stage will yield higher percentage of alcohol.

40.4. 4. Make yeast starter. Then, add yeast nutrient and finally add yeast starter to the must and start the wine fermentation.

41. Fermented milk product

41.1. Yogurt

41.1.1. Yogurt is the healthy dairy product which manufacture from fermented milk with yogurt culture. The starter culture of the yogurt is Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria

41.1.2. Yogurt provided many health benefits. Yogurt is the best source of probiotics. Probiotics can promote health of digestive system, reduce the symptoms of diarrheal and can enhance immune system. It also can help to lower the cholesterol and thus reduce the risk of CVD.

41.1.3. Yogurt can help in weight management due to the high amount of protein as protein can regulate the appetite and can support the metabolism to increase energy expenditure.

41.1.4. Yogurt can also promote bone and teeth health due to the rich amount of calcium.

41.2. Kefir

41.2.1. Kefir, is a traditional fermented dairy product that originated from Russia. It is obtained from the fermenting milk with kefir grains. Kefir grains is a starter culture or known as mother culture for the production of kefir. Kefir grains is a symbiotic culture of beneficial bacteria and yeast that are embedded within a polysaccaride matrix. Kefir grains appeared as small clumps of cauliflower florets, small in shape and look like gelatinous white or yellow particles in color. Several fermentative bacteria species that were responsible for the fermentation are lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter) and yeast. Health benefits of kefir including anticancer, maintain bone health, hypocholesterolemic effect by controlling high level of cholesterol, maintain a health immune system, anti-inflammatory, stimulate bowel movement and reduced intestinal disorder.

42. Fermented Garlic

42.1. lactofermented garlic

42.2. Honey fermented garlic

42.3. If the color of garlic turns into blue or green is because the anthocyanins and/or the sulfur compounds react with the acidity or minerals in the water. Many times, it’s the reaction of the garlic to copper in the water. It is still totally edible


43.1. Fermentation of cereals by LAB has been reported to increase free amino acids and their derivatives by proteolysis and by metabolic synthesis

43.2. fermentation has been reported to improve the nutritional value of grains such as wheat and rice, basically by increasing the content of the essential amino acids lysine, methionine, and tryptophan

43.2.1. fermentation provides optimum pH conditions for enzymatic degradation of phytate presented in cereals in the form of complexes with polyvalent cations such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and proteins Fermentation of cereals with pure yeasts culture increases protein content of fermented products


44.1. Probiotics are live microorganisms that have health benefits when consumed.

44.1.1. They are believed to improve digestive tract health, reduce depression and promotes heart health. Many gain probiotics from supplement, but you can get them from fermented food.

44.2. Tempeh

44.2.1. Fermented soybean. Forms a firm patty with nutty, earthy flavour similar to mushroom.

44.2.2. Fermentation lowers amount of phytic acid, which is high in soybeans. Phytic acids impairs absorption of certain minerals.

44.2.3. Also contains some vitamin B12 that produced during fermentation. Note that this vitamin is not available in soybean.

44.2.4. A great alternative for vegetarian as it is high in protein. It is also other vitamins and minerals.

44.3. Kimchi

44.3.1. Korean nation comfort food.

44.3.2. Usually made with cabbage but can also be made using other ingredients too.

44.3.3. Contains lactic acid bacteria and other that are beneficial to the digestive health.

44.3.4. Kimchi, especially ones made from cabbage, contains high amount of certain vitamins and minerals such as vitamin K, riboflavin and iron.


45.1. Involved the large scale fermentation processes

45.1.1. Large scale production for commercial product

45.2. Defined started culture is use and in pure form

45.2.1. Prevent contamination during fermentation

45.3. Produce high quality and nutritional value of fermented product

45.3.1. Specific started culture is use so desirable biochemical reaction to occur, thus produce desirable product

45.4. High operational cost

45.4.1. High maintenance cost due to automatic system

45.5. More equipment is equipped such as pasteurizer and heat exchanger

45.5.1. To produce high quality product by undergo inspection and other processes

45.6. More complex step is performed in modern method

45.6.1. To make sure the product produce is safe to consume and high nutritional value

46. Benefits of Yogurt

46.1. 1. Yogurt has similar micronutrient content as milk with good bioavailability due to its property as predigested food. 2. Yogurt contains various vitamins including vitamin B complexes (i.e. B1,B2,B3,B6,B9 and B12), vitamin A and vitamin E. 3. Yogurt contains high quality proteins like whey and casein which helps reduce appetite and aid muscle and bone growth. 4. Yogurt contains higher concentration of linoleic acid that milk. Conjugated linoleic acids displays immunostimulatory and anticarcinogenic bioactivities. 5. Individuals with lactose intolerance can consume yogurt containing live microbes that help digest the lactose in yogurt so they too can reap the benefits of calcium and other nutrients.

47. 1. Yogurt has similar micronutrient content as milk with a good bioavailability due to its property as predigested food.


48.1. -Well known and have been using long time ago in preserving food

48.1.1. Eg: wine, kimchi, yogurt, cheese, kombucha, sauerkraut -Fermented food is rich in probiotics which is beneficial in human health. Ranging in a better digestion, hearth health and boosting immunity.

48.1.2. Fermentation is a natural process through which microorganisms like yeast and bacteria convert carbs — such as starch and sugar — into alcohol or acids


48.2.1. Considered as safe food but some may experienced the side effect Side effect : gas and bloating


49.1. Yogurt is beneficial for gastrointestinal health and has nutritional value for example vitamin B, lactose, protein, lipids, and minerals. Lactose produces energy sources which have disaccharide lactose for human diets. Protein in yogurt actually can be digested easily compared to the protein in milk due to bacteria in yogurt acting as bacterial predigestion. Also, when fermented, it is well preserved. For lipids, it has higher conjugated linoleic acid which could prevent cancer of breast and colon due to it inhibiting the growth of tumor cells. For minerals, it has a higher source of calcium and phosphorus which functions in the formation of bones, growth, pregnancy and lactation. Also, it is beneficial for the gut microflora which the LAB could attach to the intestinal brush border tissue in order to inhibit the harmness pathogens penetrate the gastrointestinal mucosa. Also, yogurt could prevent the lactobacilli for longer survival in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Besides, it also could create defenses against pathogens which are related to the gut-associated immune response that contains in yogurt. Lastly during the laxation, the intestinal transit time could be decreased due to the improvements of bowel functioning that prevent constipation.


50.1. 1. A microorganism that forms desired end product.

50.1.1. 2. Economical raw materials for the substrate such as starch.

50.2. 3. Acceptable yields.

50.3. 4. Rapid fermentation.

50.4. 5. A product that is rapidly recovered and purified.


51.1. A type of vegetable fermented food

51.2. Can be fermented spontaneously or by controlled fermentation

51.3. Health benefits

51.3.1. Antioxidant benefits

51.3.2. Anti carcinogenic properties

51.3.3. Protection against oxidative DNA damage

51.3.4. Anti-inflammatory effects

51.3.5. Source of probiotic bacteria


52.1. One major advantage of technological fermentation enables large scale production. It means that it supports wider food chain supply up to international perspective, which it has an increased in export potential for the economy growth. It has lower time consumption. Thus, labour and energy could be greatly reduced. Another aspect is the product quality and safety are more guaranteed because of reliable methods of fermentation with regulatory compliance support and supervision. Indigenous fermentation has unique flavour profile. This is because of the variety of starter cultures for every start of the fermentation. Indigenous fermentation is often taken as an integration into village life experiences. For instance, South Korea encourages foreigners to join Kimchi making class in their cultural village. It could greatly attract attention from people around the globe and stimulate the growth of their country economy. Indigenous fermentation is relatively cheaper than its counterpart because there is low set-up expenses and the raw material is often locally produced. Technological fermentation has complexity of downstream process. Besides, there are uncertainty on the evolution of genetic engineering. For instance, the genetic engineering of microorganism has leads to doubt on safety and ethical concerns. The set up and operation cost is much higher than indigenous fermentation. This could be explained by the building, scale up and the day-to-day operation required some capital to carried out. There could be a potential of bankruptcy to be occurred like a pandemic outbreak Indigenous fermentation has a low scale production due to the processing parameters are often not optimized and standardized. It is uncontrolled and often unhygienic. In addition, more labour is required because it is not monitored and automated by the control unit of technology. It has extremely low export potential. This is because there is lesser demand because of the quality and safety of the produce is not guaranteed, it involves in barter system instead.

53. kef


54.1. Lactic acid fermentation - carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Example of products: kimchi, sauerkraut, fermented cereals and gundruk.

54.2. Alcohol fermentation - carried out predominantly by yeast and produce ethanol. Example of products: beers, wines and bread.

54.3. Acetic acid fermentation - carried out by Acetobacter species which converts alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Example of product: vinegar.

54.4. Alkaline fermentation - with the help of Bacillus subtilis (found on untreated grains) and inoculated moulds (genera Aspergillus or Mucor). Example of products: fish and seeds, basically used as condiments.


55.1. Fermentation occurs in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic conditions), and in the presence of beneficial microorganisms (yeasts, molds, and bacteria) that obtain their energy through fermentation. If enough sugar is available, some yeast cells, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, prefer fermentation to aerobic respiration even when oxygen is abundant.

55.1.1. During the fermentation process, these beneficial microbes break down sugars and starches into alcohols and acids, making food more nutritious and preserving it so people can store it for longer periods of time without it spoiling.


56.1. Millions of years prior to the arrival of humans, all chemical and enzymatic reactions required to ferment food were already present in the recycling reactions utilised by microbes for the digestion and recycling of plant components.

56.1.1. When humans came to be, learned to avoid foods had been spoiled by microorganisms, where the spoilage was signaled by off-flavours and/or off-aromas. Avoided foods were also those that caused illnesses subjected to microorganism invasions.

56.1.2. If foods showed attractive flavours, textures, and aromas after being invaded by microorganisms, humans learned to appreciate and crave such foods.

56.2. Humans also learned to use salt to preserve their food for long periods of time

56.3. The practice of fermenting foods may have been driven by desires for early humans to settle down and become agriculturists.

56.4. Fermentation has long been used not just to preserve foods but also to enhance digestibility, enrich substrates with essential vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids. Fermentation also help convert vegetable proteins to savoury meat-like flavours and textures, as well as produce a myriad of aromas and flavours. Fermentation of foods has been enriching the human diet since it began and it will continue on well into the future.

56.5. REFERENCE - Lay, J.M., Loessner, M.J., and Golden, D.A. (2005). Modern Food Microbiology (7th Edition). Springer.


57.1. fermented food based on soybean and oriented from Indonesia


58.1. The benefits are real and numerous

58.1.1. healthy for human consumption

58.1.2. 'eat natural' lifestyle


59.1. Research into health benefits of probiotics and prebiotics is vigorously carried out for the past several decades

59.1.1. However, it is to note that probiotic effects are strain dependant; not all strains are beneficial for all disorders and some might worsen the ailment Similarly, different prebiotics stimulate different microorganisms in different individuals; in some cases might lead to worsening of diseases Lack of studies in dose dependency have to be considered, as for probiotics, culture conditions may affect their efficacy as well

60. Kefir is a fermented probiotic milk drink. It is made by adding kefir grains to cow's or goat's milk. It may improve bone health, help with some digestive problems and protect against infections.

60.1. The benefits on consuming kefir are the consumption of kefir can help in boosting the immune system, help to improve bone health due to the present of calcium and help in the digestive system because its contain good microbes that help to increase the gut health.

61. Surfaces that have not been cleaned properly