Weekly Pedagogical Plan Week 2 Laurel Tester

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Weekly Pedagogical Plan Week 2 Laurel Tester by Mind Map: Weekly Pedagogical Plan Week 2 Laurel Tester

1. Teaching Vocabulary

1.1. When learning a word there is much more to it than simply learning the word itself and what it means.

1.1.1. Knowing a word involves knowing the word's:

1.1.1.1. Meaning

1.1.1.1.1. a. Denotative and connotative b. Synonyms? Antonyms?

1.1.1.2. Form

1.1.1.2.1. a. Spoken and written form b. Word parts

1.1.1.3. Use

1.1.1.3.1. a. Grammatical form b. Collocates

1.1.2. Practical Application: Word maps are a very engaging activity to encourage students to retrieve and use words they know.

1.1.2.1. The categorization of words makes students think more deeply about the words and its connections, thus helping students commit the words to memory.

1.1.2.2. Words maps are great introductory or consolidating activity for a specific topic.

1.1.3. Use Word Cards (vocabulary notebooks)

1.1.3.1. Students can record the words they encounter. The cards can include things like definitions, examples of the words in sentences, collocation information, parts of speech and also translations.

1.2. When teaching vocabulary to students, there are three main principles

1.2.1. Draw attention to the word

1.2.2. Repetition

1.2.3. Provide access to meaning

1.3. Practical strategies for developing vocabulary in the classroom

1.3.1. Rich instruction

1.3.2. Word part

1.3.3. Keyword technique

1.3.4. Chunking

1.3.5. Extensive reading

1.3.6. Use of a dictionary

1.3.6.1. Teach students to know when using a dictionary is appropriate and when it is less useful.

1.3.6.1.1. Dictionaries are good to use to check the meaning of unknown words when reading a text, for example.

1.4. Ultimately the main goal is to create a language rich classroom

2. Culturally Responsive Teaching

2.1. Our own cultural background and experiences change the way that we perceive events and new experiences in our lives.

2.1.1. Different cultures have different interpretations and explanations of the world around them which influence one's behaviour.

2.1.2. For students, culture has a large role in how students interact and behave in the classroom.

2.2. Suggestions for teaching culture

2.2.1. Teachers should facilitate inquiry rather than be a full source of information and knowledge on a culture.

2.2.1.1. In a class, teachers can use the students as resources to inform others and build a community of learners.

2.2.2. Cultural exploration should be experimental

2.2.2.1. Rather than telling students about a culture, teachers and schools can develop programs or events that allow students to experience culture firsthand.

2.2.3. Culture learning should be a process and always ongoing

2.2.4. Non-linguistic cultural meanings should be explored

2.2.5. Avoid over generalizations

2.2.5.1. Again, teachers don't have to be all knowing on the subject. They can use students, parents, and other individuals to teach her about the important aspects of a culture.

2.2.5.1.1. Bringing parents into the classroom to share their knowledge is a great way to support the ELL students, and build relationships between students.

2.3. Big 'C' and Little 'c' Culture

2.3.1. Big 'C' Culture

2.3.1.1. Objective, tangible, surface knowledge of a culture

2.3.2. Little 'c' Culture

2.3.2.1. Subjective, tacit, deep knowledge of a culture

2.3.2.2. Observe students in the classroom and during activities to see if you can better support them in their transition into the classroom.

2.3.2.3. This type of culture can be seen in the classroom by paying attention to the following traits in students:

2.3.2.3.1. Body language

2.3.2.3.2. Cultural communication styles

2.3.2.3.3. Time and personal space

2.3.2.3.4. Attitudes towards competition

2.3.2.3.5. Values and belief systems

2.3.3. Both of these types of cultures should be incorporated into the classroom.

3. Linguistically Responsive Teaching

3.1. Fostering Multiliteracy in a Linguistically Diverse Classroom

3.1.1. Misconceptions

3.1.1.1. Misconception # 1: Monolingual teachers cannot foster multiliteracy since they are not multiliterate.

3.1.1.1.1. Teachers can use the skills that students have from their native language to teach another.

3.1.1.2. Misconception #2: The classroom teacher is the only person who can teach languages in the classroom.

3.1.1.2.1. Although a monolingual teacher cannot actually "teach" students' native languages, a teacher can create a multi-literate community by asking students, parents, siblings, elders, clergy, and other community members for guidance and assistance.

3.1.1.3. Misconception #3: Teachers who do not know how to write in languages other than English cannot foster writing in the students' home languages.

3.1.1.3.1. Again, teachers can enlist the help of others to provide students with rich multi- literate environment.

3.1.1.4. Misconception #4: Teachers who do not understand their students' home languages cannot assess their language proficiency in those languages.

3.1.1.4.1. Biliterate community members can help teachers assess students' native literacy proficiency

3.1.1.5. Misconception #5: Monolingual teachers can help children become multiliterate even if the teachers do not learn their own heritage languages.

3.1.1.5.1. Teachers can learn how to write their own names in the home language and learn about their ancestry.

3.1.2. Strategies to create a multi-literate environment

3.1.2.1. Label students' cubbies with their names in English as well as their home language.

3.1.2.2. Enlist the help of parents to acquire posters of all the different alphabets represented by students in the classroom.

3.1.2.3. Include books in the classroom in students' native languages as well as English.

3.1.2.4. Find ways to translate environmental print as well as school letters into all of the languages available in the learning community.

3.1.3. Strategies to enhance the language and literacy development of bilingual children.

3.1.3.1. Ensure that environmental print reflects the students first languages.

3.1.3.2. Supply the school and classroom libraries with books and magazines, and other resources in languages other than English.

3.1.3.3. Encourage bilingual students to publish books and share their stories in languages other than English.

3.1.3.4. Have bilingual students read and write with aides, parents, or other students who speak their first language.

3.1.3.5. Use videotapes produced professionally or by the students to support academic learning and raise self-esteem.

4. Teaching Grammar

4.1. Teachers must consider 3 factors when deciding on their instruction for grammar

4.1.1. Approach

4.1.1.1. Inductive

4.1.1.1.1. Students are provided with several examples from which a rule is inferred

4.1.1.2. Deductive

4.1.1.2.1. The grammar rule is provided for learners followed by examples where the rule is applied

4.1.2. Focus

4.1.2.1. Accuracy

4.1.2.1.1. Practice activities to develop accuracy in the classroom:

4.1.2.2. Fluency

4.1.2.2.1. Activities used in the classroom should: - simulate real-life language use as characterized by unpredictability and time constraints - be a built-in need to communicate - provide an opportunity for a high volume of the target form to be produced

4.1.2.3. Complexity

4.1.2.3.1. Activities used in the classroom should: - push students to produce/comprehend language that is more complex than they would normally understand - balance the new with the old material introduced so that students have support to take risks with language.

4.1.3. Paradigm

4.1.3.1. Teaching through practice

4.1.3.1.1. Grammar practice is divided into drills and exercises

4.1.3.2. Teaching through awareness

4.1.3.2.1. Use of consciousness-raising (CR) activities

4.1.3.3. Teaching through usage

4.1.3.3.1. Communicative grammar tasks provide students with genuine opportunities to communicate using the language that is known.

5. Task-based and Content-based Language Teaching

5.1. Task-Based Language Teaching

5.1.1. TBLT dictates ‘what’ and ‘how’ to teach

5.1.1.1. The focus is on communication to develop students' language skills.

5.1.1.1.1. Engaging in meaningful communication may emphasize fluency. Therefore teachers should be cautious that accuracy and complexity are not being diminished.

5.1.2. The task dictates classroom instruction

5.1.2.1. Teachers should get to know students to therefore use their interests and strengths to plan tasks and instruction.

5.1.2.2. A task is defined by: - Meaning is primary - A communication problem or information gap exists - Learners use their own linguistic resources to complete tasks - The desired outcome is task completion, rather than accurate usage of particular language

5.1.3. Task is preeminent element of planning and evaluation

5.1.4. Accuracy and fluency are addressed in TBLT with a linguistic focus supporting the task or emerging out of difficulties experienced during the task

5.1.5. TBLT is student-centered

5.1.5.1. Students influence:

5.1.5.1.1. The planning process

5.1.5.1.2. The direction of the lesson

5.1.6. The development of student autonomy is an important component of TBLT

5.1.7. Willis’ Model

5.1.7.1. Three Phases

5.1.7.1.1. Pre-Task: -lexicon is introduced - learners engage in brief activities to activate their schemata about a particular topic or to equip them to participate in the main task

5.1.7.1.2. Task: - learners are actively engaged in completing a communicative task

5.1.7.1.3. Language Focus: - learners’ errors are highlighted - specific activities are used to allow students to practice the correct language forms.