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Coasts by Mind Map: Coasts

1. Climate

1.1. Winds

1.1.1. Generate waves and currents Coasts facing open sea encounter strong, long-lasting winds Powerful, short and high DESTRUCTIVE WAVES BACKWASH is more powerful than swash Coasts in sheltered locations encounter weak, short winds Weak, long and low CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES SWASH is more powerful than backwash WAVE REFRACTION along an irregular coast RETARDING INFLUENCE of shallow waters off the headlands before the shallow waters of the bay causes wave refraction WAVE ENERGY directed and concentrated more towards headlands Erosion is more INTENSIVE at headlands DEPOSITION is more common in the bay REDUCES shoreline irregularity

1.1.2. Affect weathering of cliffs and sources of beach material

1.1.3. High velocity Strong prevailing winds Higher wave energy

1.2. Glaciation

1.2.1. Glaciated valleys drown when the sea level rises

1.3. Rainfall

1.3.1. Weathering How fast the cliff is retreating landwards

1.4. Temperature

1.4.1. Weathering

1.5. Vegetation

1.5.1. Increase in weathering

2. Geology

2.1. Rock type

2.1.1. Igneous

2.1.2. Metamorphic

2.1.3. Sedimentary

2.1.4. Affects resistance to coastal erosion Irregular coastland Headlands and bays

2.2. Dipping of the planes

2.2.1. Seaward

2.2.2. Horizontal

2.2.3. Landward

2.3. Lines of weakness

2.3.1. More lines of weakness, higher rate of weathering and wave erosion

2.4. Gradient of offshore slope

2.4.1. Steep

2.4.2. Gentle Constructive waves Wave height Wave length Wave frequency Spilling breakers Swash > backwash

2.4.3. Affects amount of friction Types of waves

3. Tectonics

3.1. Coastal movement

3.1.1. Uplift changes in sea level

3.2. Earthquake

3.2.1. Mass movement Increases sediment load

3.3. Volcanic activity

3.4. River

4. Marine

4.1. Fetch

4.1.1. Large Exposed coast

4.1.2. Small Sheltered coast

4.2. Tidal difference