Ecology of Socialization

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Ecology of Socialization by Mind Map: Ecology of Socialization

1. Socialization Process

1.1. affected by:

1.1.1. Biological

1.1.1.1. genetics

1.1.1.2. evolution

1.1.1.3. hormones

1.1.1.4. influence: basic neural circuitry of the brain during early development.

1.1.1.4.1. experience-expectant

1.1.2. Sociocultural

1.1.2.1. influence the development of the neural circuitry.

1.1.2.1.1. experience-dependent

1.1.3. Interactive factors

1.1.3.1. individual life history

1.1.3.1.1. child's receptivity to socialization

1.1.3.2. reaction so situations

1.1.3.2.1. resilient in the face of adversity

1.1.3.2.2. Based on biology and social networks in their lives.

2. Aims of Socialization

2.1. enables children:

2.1.1. learn what they need to, to be integrated in the society they live.

2.1.2. to develop their potentiality.

2.1.3. to form satisfying relationships.

2.1.4. Develop a self-concept

2.1.4.1. individual perception of identity.

2.1.4.1.1. distinct from that of others .

2.1.4.1.2. emerges from experiences of separateness from others.

2.1.4.1.3. How you relate to the community around you.

2.1.4.1.4. Value of self is measured by self-esteem.

2.1.4.1.5. Grows with time.

2.1.4.1.6. Mirror/Looking glass-self

2.1.4.1.7. "who am I", but also "where am I going"?

2.1.4.1.8. begins to form between 15-18 months in age

2.1.4.2. develops when attitudes and expectations of significant others with whom one interacts are incorporated into one's personality.

2.1.4.3. Psychosocial Influences on Development of self.

2.1.4.3.1. Erik Erikcon: personality development of individuals as the outcome of their interactions in their social environment.

2.1.5. Enable self-regulation

2.1.5.1. ability to control:

2.1.5.1.1. One's impulses

2.1.5.1.2. one's behavior

2.1.5.1.3. one's emotions

2.1.5.2. routing our feelings through our brains before acting on them according to the situation.

2.1.6. Empower achievement

2.1.6.1. goals for what you are going to be when you grow up.

2.1.6.1.1. teacher

2.1.6.1.2. doctor

2.1.6.1.3. actress

2.1.6.2. goals provide rationale for:

2.1.6.2.1. going to school

2.1.6.2.2. getting along with others

2.1.6.2.3. following rules

2.1.6.3. Significant adults and peers influence one's motivation to succeed.

2.1.7. Teach appropriate social roles

2.1.7.1. to be part of the group, one has to function and complement the group.

2.1.7.2. assume appropriate behavior for different roles.

2.1.7.2.1. can occur simultaneously

2.1.7.2.2. daughter, sister, aunt, employee, student, customer. etc.

2.1.7.3. what is appropriate is affected by:

2.1.7.3.1. culture

2.1.7.3.2. ethnicity

2.1.7.3.3. religion (macrosystem influences)

2.1.7.3.4. time (chronosystem)

2.1.7.4. gender

2.1.7.4.1. example learnt from significant members of one's society.

2.1.8. Implement developmental skills.

2.1.8.1. Socialization aims to provide:

2.1.8.1.1. Social Skills

2.1.8.1.2. Emotional Skills:

2.1.8.1.3. Cognitive Skills:

2.1.8.2. society's expectations with skills change according to the maturation of the individual.

2.1.8.3. developmental task: midway between an individual need and a societal demand.

2.1.8.3.1. things that one must learn to get along well in society.

2.1.8.3.2. varies by different cultures.

2.1.8.4. physical development: walk, control bladders, use pencil, etc

2.1.8.5. Intellectual development: read, arithmetic, solve problems, etc.

2.1.8.6. Social development: cooperate, empathize and interact with others.

2.1.8.7. Emotional development: regulate our impulses and express our feelings

3. Agents of Socialization

3.1. Family

3.1.1. 1st reference group

3.1.1.1. values, norms, and practices adopted and refers to when evaluating personal behavior.

3.1.2. Behavior patterns in culturally diverse families:

3.1.2.1. 1.) orientation:

3.1.2.1.1. collectivistic

3.1.2.1.2. Individualistic

3.1.2.1.3. orientation can influence:

3.1.2.2. 2.) Coping styles

3.1.2.2.1. Active:

3.1.2.2.2. Passive:

3.1.2.3. 3.) Attitude toward Authority

3.1.2.3.1. Submissive:

3.1.2.3.2. Egalitarian:

3.1.2.4. 4.) Communication style:

3.1.2.4.1. Open/Expressive:

3.1.2.4.2. Restrained/Private:

3.1.2.5. interdependent:

3.1.2.5.1. stress on family loyalty, intergenerational dependency, control, and obedience

3.1.2.6. independent:

3.1.2.6.1. stress on individual achievement, separateness of generations, egalitarianism, and consensus.

3.2. teachers (school)

3.2.1. perpetuate societies knowledge of:

3.2.1.1. skills

3.2.1.2. customs

3.2.1.3. beliefs

3.2.2. evaluation contributes to socialization in that the norms and standards of society are learned via the criteria of the evaluation

3.2.2.1. report cards

3.2.2.2. teachers comments

3.2.2.3. classmates judgements

3.2.2.4. self judgements

3.2.3. teacher-centered vs learner centered classrooms

3.2.4. child care as an agent

3.2.4.1. someone other than the parents depending on the age and time with the child will influence their socialization.

3.3. peers

3.3.1. individuals who are approximately the same age and social status and have common interests.

3.3.2. "give and take" relationship

3.3.3. social comparison

3.3.4. can practice different roles

3.3.4.1. leader

3.3.4.2. follower

3.3.4.3. clown

3.3.4.4. troublemaker

3.3.4.5. peacemaker

3.4. media

3.4.1. newspapers, magazines, books, radio, television, videos, movies, computers, consoles, etc.

3.4.2. means of communication and information technology that reach large audiences via impersonal medium btwn the sender and the receiver.

3.4.3. provide role models:

3.4.3.1. hero

3.4.3.2. villian

3.4.4. reflect social attitudes

3.4.5. long term or short term

3.5. exert influence in different ways and at different times.

3.6. agents can complement one another or contradict one another.

3.7. Community

3.7.1. fellowship

3.7.2. affective relationships expected among closely knit groups of people sharing common interests

3.7.3. people living in a particular geographical area who are bound together politically and economically

3.7.4. Provides:

3.7.4.1. sense of belonging

3.7.4.2. friendship

3.7.4.3. socialization of children

3.7.5. city =family friendly

3.7.5.1. 1.) education-accessible, high quality

3.7.5.2. 2.) recreation

3.7.5.3. 3.) Community safety

3.7.5.4. 4.) Citizen involvement

3.7.5.5. 5.) physical environment

3.7.6. informal social support system:

3.7.6.1. relatives

3.7.6.2. friends

3.7.6.3. neighbors

3.7.7. formal social support system:

3.7.7.1. instituionalized child care

3.7.7.2. big brothers/sisters

3.7.7.3. meals on wheels

3.7.7.4. parents without partners

3.7.7.5. These can be funded by tax dollars, donations or membership fees.

3.7.7.5.1. comes from advocacy

4. Affective Methods of Socialization

4.1. affective: feelings or emotions

4.1.1. love

4.1.2. anger

4.1.3. fear

4.1.4. disgust

4.2. affective mechanisms:

4.2.1. response to others

4.2.2. feelings about self

4.2.3. feelings about others

4.2.4. expression of emotions

4.3. emerges from person to person interaction.

4.3.1. leads to attachment.

4.3.1.1. affectional tie from one person to another.

4.3.1.1.1. secure attachment

4.3.1.1.2. insecure attachment

5. Operant Methods of Socialization

5.1. Operant: Producing effect

5.2. take into account the participatory role of individuals in their own socialization.

5.3. Reinforcement:

5.3.1. object or event that is presented following a behavior and that serves to increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

5.3.1.1. Positive:

5.3.1.1.1. reward, pleasant consequence given for desired behavior.

5.3.1.2. Negative:

5.3.1.2.1. the termination of an unpleasant condition following desired response.

5.3.2. problems to reinforcement:

5.3.2.1. 1.) individuals respond differently to reinforcers.

5.3.2.2. 2.) The child may become board with the reinforcer....effictiveness diminishes

5.3.2.3. 3.) Being human- its difficult for adults to continually reward childrens desired behavior.

5.3.2.3.1. requires: patience, being there, etc.

5.3.2.4. 4.) Adults sometimes unintentionally reinforce the very behaviors they want to eliminate.

5.3.2.5. 5.) It is externally regulated and may reduce the motivation for self-control.

5.4. Extinction: gradual disappearance of a learned behavior following the removal of the reinforcement.

5.4.1. type of extinction:

5.4.1.1. timeout: in which the reinforcement is removed.

5.5. shaping:

5.5.1. systematic immediate reinforcement of successive approximations of desired behavior. until it can be maintained

5.5.1.1. repetitive

5.5.1.2. progress is rewarded

5.5.1.3. advance to the next stage.

5.6. Punishment:physically or psychologically aversive stimuli or the temporary withdrawl of pleasant stimuli when undesirable behavior occurs.

5.6.1. physical:

5.6.1.1. spanking

5.6.2. psychological:

5.6.2.1. scolding or harsh criticism causing shame.

5.6.2.2. withdrawl of a pleasant stimulus

5.6.2.2.1. tv

5.6.2.2.2. cell phone

5.6.3. intervention technique to discourage undesirable behavior.

5.6.4. when a childs behavior must be stopped quickly for safety reasons.

5.6.4.1. spanking for running into the street

5.6.5. to be affective:

5.6.5.1. 1.) timing: the closer the punishment to the behavior, the better.

5.6.5.2. 2.) Reasoning: explanation for punishment given

5.6.5.3. 3.) Consistency: Needs to be consistent in what actions cause it and how it is treated and by who gives it.

5.6.5.4. 4.) Attachment to the person doing the punishment: Better when it comes from a nurturer.

5.6.5.4.1. Will likely be followed better if it comes from the parent than if it comes from a peer

5.6.6. criticisms of punishment:

5.6.6.1. 1.) may stop the undesired behavior immediately, but by itself does not indicate the appropriate or desired behavior.

5.6.6.2. 2.) may only slow the rate at which the undesired behavior occurs rather than eliminate it completely. or change the form that the undesired behavior occurs.

5.6.6.2.1. ex: people who stop smoking may start eating more

5.6.6.3. 3.) punishment by an adult may have an undesirable modeling effect on the child.

5.6.6.3.1. parents who abuse their children are likely to have been abused by their parents.

5.6.6.4. 4.) The emotional side effects of punishments (fear, embarrassment, shame, low self-esteem, and tenseness) may be psychologically more damaging than the original behavior.

5.6.7. provides:

5.6.7.1. opportunity to reestablish attachment or affection following emotional release.

5.6.7.2. vicarious learning by observation of others being punished.

5.6.7.3. reduce guilt in that it can provide an opportunity to correct misbehavior.

5.6.7.4. when combined with reasoning it can enable the internalization of moral standards.

5.7. Feedback: evaluative info, both positive and negative about one's behavior.

5.7.1. dynamic and bidirectional relationship between teacher and learner. in that teachers modify their responses according to the learners.

5.7.1.1. approving nod, questioning look, comment, further instructions, or a reminder.

5.7.2. Provides:

5.7.2.1. knowledge of results and how to improve them.

5.7.2.2. information on how they are measuring up to standards of behavior and performance.

5.7.3. Feedback performance:

5.7.3.1. 1.) increases motivation

5.7.3.2. 2.) improves subsequent performance

5.7.3.3. 3.) the more specific the knowledge of performance, the more rapidly performance improves.

5.7.3.4. 4.) punctual feedback is usually more effective than feedback given long after a task has been completed.

5.7.3.5. 5.) Noticeable decreases in feedback often result in a marked decline in performance.

5.7.3.6. 6.) When knowledge of results is not provided, individuals tend to develop substitutes.

5.7.3.6.1. compare their performance to that of peers to determine whether it is better or worse.

5.8. Learning by doing:

5.8.1. given the chance to try on their own to succeed or fail.

5.8.1.1. self-efficacy: the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.

5.8.2. experiential learning

5.8.2.1. problem solving

5.8.2.2. creativity

5.8.2.3. stimulations

5.8.2.4. personal tutoring

6. Cognitive Methods of Socialization

6.1. Instruction: must be specific and appropriate/understood for the age.

6.2. Standards: level of excellence regarded as a goal or a measure of adequacy.

6.2.1. advance notice of what is or is not expected of them.

6.2.1.1. drivers licence test

6.2.1.2. laws of a country

6.2.1.3. cities building codes

6.2.1.4. school achievement tests

6.2.2. set by socializing agents.

6.3. Reasoning: giving explanations of causes for an act.

6.3.1. enables a child to draw conclusions when encountering similar situations, therby internalizing self-regulatory mechanisms (with children over the age of 3).

6.3.1.1. sociocentrism- the ability to understand and relate to the views and perspectives of others.

6.3.1.1.1. children between the age of 4-7 are moving away from ego centrism and toward sociocentrism.

6.3.1.2. transductive reasoning- from one particular fact or case to another similar fact or case.

6.3.1.2.1. Tyler has red hair and hits me; therefore all boys with red hair hit

6.3.1.3. Inductive reasoning- reasoning from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.

6.3.1.3.1. I can't hit Kyle; therfore, I can't hit any other children.

6.3.1.4. Deductive reasoning- reasoning from a general principle to a specific case, or from a premise to a logical conclusion.

6.3.1.4.1. I can't hit other children; therefore, I can't hit Kyle.

6.3.2. problems with reasoning:

6.3.2.1. 1.) child may not understand the words used.

6.3.2.2. 2.) often they are not able to generalize a reason to another situation.

6.3.3. if reasoning doesnt work try:

6.3.3.1. empathy:

6.3.3.2. altruism:

6.3.3.2.1. actions that are intended to help or benefit another person without the actors anticipation of external rewards.

6.3.4. an effective socializing mechanism when children exhibit the ability to think logically and flexibly. --occurs after the age of or.

6.3.4.1. allows for adaptation

6.3.5. used as a socializing method in families and cultural groups that value

6.3.5.1. verbal skills

6.3.5.2. abstract thought

6.3.5.3. assertiveness

6.3.5.4. self-reliance

7. Sociocultural Methods of Socialization

7.1. peer pressure

7.1.1. conforming certain norms.

7.1.1.1. family

7.1.1.2. neighborhood

7.1.1.3. religious

7.1.1.4. peers

7.1.1.5. clubs

7.1.1.6. school

7.1.2. varies according to several psychological factors:

7.1.2.1. 1.) attraction to the group- the more ppl want to belong to the group. the more likely they will conform to group pressure.

7.1.2.2. 2.) Acceptance by the group- the role of status a person has- leader vs follower, affects the the degree of influence.

7.1.2.2.1. follower is more subject to group pressure than the leader.

7.1.2.3. 3.) Type of group-degree of influence depends on the affective relationship among members of the group.

7.1.2.3.1. groups in which ties are close (family) or (friends) , exert a stronger influence than groups in which the affective ties are more distant (scouts or little league.

7.2. tradition:

7.2.1. handing down of customs, stories and beliefs generation to generation.

7.2.2. learning the pledge of allegiance

7.2.3. sets the pattern for which be believe and live our lives. and how we interact with one another.

7.2.4. teaches roles and how it is done (behavior)

7.3. Rituals & Routines:

7.3.1. ritual- a ceremonial observation of a prescribed rule or custom.

7.3.1.1. connect us with our past,

7.3.1.2. define our present

7.3.1.3. give us future direction

7.3.1.4. way of creating respect for traditions- ritualization.

7.3.1.5. evokes appropriate feelings

7.3.1.6. rites of passage

7.3.1.6.1. ritual that signifies changes in individuals status as they move through the life cycle

7.3.2. routine:

7.3.2.1. repetitive acts or established procedures

7.3.2.1.1. bedtime,

7.3.2.1.2. mealtime

7.3.2.1.3. give children a sense of security and a chance to practice appropriate behavior.

7.4. Symbols:

7.4.1. acts or objects that have come to be generally accepted as a standing for representing something else.

7.4.1.1. dove= peace

7.4.1.2. cross= christ's death

7.4.1.3. powerful codes or shorthand, for representing aspects of the world that trigger certain behaviors individuals have learned to associate with them.

7.4.1.3.1. flag= patriotism. Behavior- salute the flag.

7.4.2. language- make sit possible to replace behavior with ideas and to communicate these ideas to the next generation.

8. Apprenticeship Methods of Socialization

8.1. novice is guided by an expert to participate in and master tasks.

8.1.1. parent

8.1.2. sibling

8.1.3. relative

8.1.4. teacher

8.1.5. peer

8.1.6. coach

8.1.7. some other member of the community.

8.2. previous mentions of methods of socialization are imparted in the child's macrosystems through means of apprenticeship.

8.3. expert structures activities according to the childs ability, then collaborating in joint activities then transferring repsonsibility to the child.

9. Outcomes of Socialization

9.1. affected by:

9.1.1. biological

9.1.2. sociocultural

9.1.3. interactional

9.2. Socialization involves the following outcomes:

9.2.1. 1.) development of self-regulation of emotion, thinking and behavior

9.2.2. 2.) Reciprocity and cooperation

9.2.2.1. development of role taking skills, strategies for resolving conflicts, and ways of viewing relationships

9.2.3. 3.) Acquisition of a cultures morals & values, including the willingness to accept the authority of others.

9.2.4. 4.) Conformity to and adoption of practices and routines associated with the gorup.

9.3. 1.) values

9.3.1. qualities or beliefs that are viewed as desirable or important.

9.3.1.1. socialising agents in microsystems influence the internalization of values.

9.4. 2.) attitudes:

9.4.1. tendencies to respond positively or negatively to certain persons, objects, or situations.

9.4.1.1. the macrosystem influences attitudes too

9.4.1.1.1. americas experience with 9/11 resulted in homeland security.

9.5. 3.) Motives & Attributions:

9.5.1. Motives: needs or emotions that cause a person to act, such as the need for achievement

9.5.1.1. extrinsic

9.5.1.1.1. need for approval

9.5.1.2. intrinsic

9.5.1.2.1. need to understand something.

9.5.1.3. mastery motivation

9.5.1.3.1. inborn motive to explore, understand, and control one's environment.

9.5.1.4. achievement motivation:

9.5.1.4.1. motivation to achieve mastery of challenging tasks.

9.5.2. Attributions: expnations for one's performance on a task.

9.5.2.1. extrinsic

9.5.2.1.1. I failed because it was a trick question

9.5.2.2. intrinsic

9.5.2.2.1. I failed because I didnt study.

9.6. 4.) Self-esteem:

9.6.1. people will gravitate towards domains where they perceive personal competence and avoid domains/activities in which they perceive no sense of accomplishment.

9.7. 5.) Self-regulation/Behavior:

9.7.1. self regulation: process of bringing emotions, thoughts, and/or behavior under one's control.

9.7.2. Behavior: consists of what one does or how one acts in response to a stimulus.

9.8. 6.) Morals:

9.8.1. an individuals evaluation of what is right and wrong.

9.8.2. acceptance of rules and govern one's behavior toward others.

9.8.3. moral development involves:

9.8.3.1. affective (emotional, competent)

9.8.3.2. Cognitive (reasoning)

9.8.3.3. Behavioral (moral action)

9.9. 7.) Gender Roles:

9.9.1. qualities that individuals understand to characterize males and females in their culture.

9.9.2. gender =psychological attribuutes

9.9.3. sex= biological attributes

10. Observational methods of socialization

10.1. modeling:imitative learning that occurs by observing another person perform a behavior and experience its consequences.

10.1.1. learning second hand.

10.1.2. parents, siblings, relatives, friends, teachers, coaches or television characters.

10.1.3. ability to abstract info from what is observe, store it in memory, make generalizations and rules about behavior, retriece the apporpriate info, and act it out at the appropriate time.

10.1.4. probability that children will imitate a model is based on their:

10.1.4.1. 1.) Attention

10.1.4.2. 2.) level of cognitive development

10.1.4.3. 3.) retention

10.1.4.4. 4.) type of activity being observed.

10.1.4.5. 5.) motivation.

10.1.4.6. 6.) ability to reproduce the behavior

10.1.4.7. 7.) repertoire of alternative behaviors.

10.1.5. emphasized in high context cultures.

10.1.6. allow:

10.1.6.1. children to participate in chores along side adults.

10.1.6.1.1. I started to help out with the animals when I was as young as 4.