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Tissues by Mind Map: Tissues

1. Epithelial Tissue

1.1. Basic Characteristics

1.1.1. Composed of mostly cells

1.1.2. Very little extracellular matrix

1.1.3. Avascular

1.1.4. Capable of regeneration/renewal due to ability to undergo mitosis

1.1.5. Basement membrane attached tissue to deeper tissues by basement membrane

1.2. Distinct Cell Surfaces

1.2.1. Basal Towards the basement membrane

1.2.2. Lateral Sides

1.2.3. Apical Toward the space (e.g. lumen) lined epithelium Smooth reduces friction Microvilli increase surface area for absorption and/or secretion Cilia move materials across the surface Folds in transitional epithelium to facilitate expansion of an organ wall

1.3. Classification of Epithelial Tissues

1.3.1. Number of layers and shape of cells Number of layers of cells between apical and basal membranes Simple Stratified Shape of cells (near apical surface) Squamous Cuboidal Columnar

1.4. Types of Epithelial Tissues

1.4.1. Simple Squamous Epithelium Structure Single layer of flat cells Location Lining of blood and blood vessels Function Diffusion and friction reduction

1.4.2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Structure: Single layer of flat of cube-shaped cells sometimes possess microvilli Location lining of blood vessels (endothelim) Alvae Function Active transport, (e.g. blood modification by kidneys

1.4.3. Simple Columnar Epithelium Structure Single layer of cub-shapped Location Bronchi (airways), uterine (fallopian) tubes, narrow.cells, goblet spot Function Active transport (absorption/secretion) and/or movement of substances along apical surface

1.4.4. Stratified Squamous Epithelium Structure Multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal in the basal layer and progressively flatten out toward the surface

1.4.5. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Structure Simple epithelium but appears stratified Goblet cells are often present Cilia are present Location Respiratory Tract Function Moves mucus or fluid that contain foreign particles

1.4.6. Transitional Epithelium Structure Stratified; multiple layers Cells change shape depending upon amount of distention Location Lining of the urinary tract Function Protection against the caustic effects of urinateg and the facilities

1.5. Types of Glands

1.5.1. Endocrine Secretion releases to internal environment Does not possess ducts Secretes homrnos

1.5.2. Exocrine Secretion released to the New Orleans Possess ducts Secretes sweat

2. Connective Tissue

2.1. Structure

2.1.1. Consists of protein fibers and ground substance Types of Protein Fibers Collagen Reticular Elastic Ground Substance Includes all other substances in a matrix that besides the proteins Glycosaminoglycan acts as lubrication Proteoglycans provide shock absorption

2.1.2. Small amounts of reticular fibers in the extra cellular matrix a.k.a. heat

2.2. Basic Functions

2.2.1. Connect other tissues to one another

2.2.2. Support and movement

2.2.3. Enclose and partition organs

2.2.4. Insulation

2.2.5. Protection of other tissues

2.2.6. Storage of energy

2.2.7. Transportation

2.3. Cell Types Present

2.3.1. Blasts Creates the matrix

2.3.2. Cytes Maintains the matrix

2.3.3. Clasts Breaks down the matrix for remodeling

2.4. Types of Connective Tissue

2.4.1. Loose Areolar Structure Location Function Reticular Structure Location Function Adipose Structure Location Function

2.4.2. Dense Dense Regular Collagenous Structure Location Function Dense Irregular Collagenous Structure Location Function Dense Regular Elastic Structure Location Function Dense Irregular Elastic Structure Location Function

2.4.3. Supporting Connective Tissues General Characteristics Chondrocyte cells Lacunae: spaces within extracellular matrix Avascular Firm consistency Permits diffusion of small solutes Perichondrium: membrane that surrounds many cartilage structures Types of Supportive Connective Tissue Cartillage Bone

2.4.4. Fluid Connective Tissuse Blood

3. Nervous (Neural)

4. Muscular Tissue

5. Intercellular Connections

5.1. Desmosomes

5.1.1. Proteins cross-link adjacent cells proving strength and flexibility

5.2. Hemidesmosomes

5.2.1. Reinforce epithelial cell attachment to basement membrane

5.3. Tight Junctions

5.3.1. Proteins from a tight seal or permeable barrier between cells

5.4. Gap Junctions

5.4.1. Proteins form a channel-like junction through which small molecules and ions may pass