Tissues

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Tissues by Mind Map: Tissues

1. Epithelial Tissue

1.1. Basic Characteristics

1.1.1. Composed of mostly cells

1.1.2. Very little extracellular matrix

1.1.3. Avascular

1.1.4. Capable of regeneration/renewal due to ability to undergo mitosis

1.1.5. Basement membrane attached tissue to deeper tissues by basement membrane

1.2. Distinct Cell Surfaces

1.2.1. Basal

1.2.1.1. Towards the basement membrane

1.2.2. Lateral

1.2.2.1. Sides

1.2.3. Apical

1.2.3.1. Toward the space (e.g. lumen) lined epithelium

1.2.3.1.1. Smooth reduces friction

1.2.3.1.2. Microvilli increase surface area for absorption and/or secretion

1.2.3.1.3. Cilia move materials across the surface

1.2.3.1.4. Folds in transitional epithelium to facilitate expansion of an organ wall

1.3. Classification of Epithelial Tissues

1.3.1. Number of layers and shape of cells

1.3.1.1. Number of layers of cells between apical and basal membranes

1.3.1.1.1. Simple

1.3.1.1.2. Stratified

1.3.1.2. Shape of cells (near apical surface)

1.3.1.2.1. Squamous

1.3.1.2.2. Cuboidal

1.3.1.2.3. Columnar

1.4. Types of Epithelial Tissues

1.4.1. Simple Squamous Epithelium

1.4.1.1. Structure

1.4.1.1.1. Single layer of flat cells

1.4.1.2. Location

1.4.1.2.1. Lining of blood and blood vessels

1.4.1.3. Function

1.4.1.3.1. Diffusion and friction reduction

1.4.2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

1.4.2.1. Structure:

1.4.2.1.1. Single layer of flat of cube-shaped cells sometimes possess microvilli

1.4.2.2. Location

1.4.2.2.1. lining of blood vessels (endothelim) Alvae

1.4.2.3. Function

1.4.2.3.1. Active transport, (e.g. blood modification by kidneys

1.4.3. Simple Columnar Epithelium

1.4.3.1. Structure

1.4.3.1.1. Single layer of cub-shapped

1.4.3.2. Location

1.4.3.2.1. Bronchi (airways), uterine (fallopian) tubes, narrow.cells, goblet spot

1.4.3.3. Function

1.4.3.3.1. Active transport (absorption/secretion) and/or movement of substances along apical surface

1.4.4. Stratified Squamous Epithelium

1.4.4.1. Structure

1.4.4.1.1. Multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal in the basal layer and progressively flatten out toward the surface

1.4.5. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

1.4.5.1. Structure

1.4.5.1.1. Simple epithelium but appears stratified

1.4.5.1.2. Goblet cells are often present

1.4.5.1.3. Cilia are present

1.4.5.2. Location

1.4.5.2.1. Respiratory Tract

1.4.5.3. Function

1.4.5.3.1. Moves mucus or fluid that contain foreign particles

1.4.6. Transitional Epithelium

1.4.6.1. Structure

1.4.6.1.1. Stratified; multiple layers

1.4.6.1.2. Cells change shape depending upon amount of distention

1.4.6.2. Location

1.4.6.2.1. Lining of the urinary tract

1.4.6.3. Function

1.4.6.3.1. Protection against the caustic effects of urinateg and the facilities

1.5. Types of Glands

1.5.1. Endocrine

1.5.1.1. Secretion releases to internal environment

1.5.1.2. Does not possess ducts

1.5.1.3. Secretes homrnos

1.5.2. Exocrine

1.5.2.1. Secretion released to the New Orleans

1.5.2.2. Possess ducts

1.5.2.3. Secretes sweat

2. Connective Tissue

2.1. Structure

2.1.1. Consists of protein fibers and ground substance

2.1.1.1. Types of Protein Fibers

2.1.1.1.1. Collagen

2.1.1.1.2. Reticular

2.1.1.1.3. Elastic

2.1.1.2. Ground Substance

2.1.1.2.1. Includes all other substances in a matrix that besides the proteins

2.1.1.2.2. Glycosaminoglycan acts as lubrication

2.1.1.2.3. Proteoglycans provide shock absorption

2.1.2. Small amounts of reticular fibers in the extra cellular matrix a.k.a. heat

2.2. Basic Functions

2.2.1. Connect other tissues to one another

2.2.2. Support and movement

2.2.3. Enclose and partition organs

2.2.4. Insulation

2.2.5. Protection of other tissues

2.2.6. Storage of energy

2.2.7. Transportation

2.3. Cell Types Present

2.3.1. Blasts

2.3.1.1. Creates the matrix

2.3.2. Cytes

2.3.2.1. Maintains the matrix

2.3.3. Clasts

2.3.3.1. Breaks down the matrix for remodeling

2.4. Types of Connective Tissue

2.4.1. Loose

2.4.1.1. Areolar

2.4.1.1.1. Structure

2.4.1.1.2. Location

2.4.1.1.3. Function

2.4.1.2. Reticular

2.4.1.2.1. Structure

2.4.1.2.2. Location

2.4.1.2.3. Function

2.4.1.3. Adipose

2.4.1.3.1. Structure

2.4.1.3.2. Location

2.4.1.3.3. Function

2.4.2. Dense

2.4.2.1. Dense Regular Collagenous

2.4.2.1.1. Structure

2.4.2.1.2. Location

2.4.2.1.3. Function

2.4.2.2. Dense Irregular Collagenous

2.4.2.2.1. Structure

2.4.2.2.2. Location

2.4.2.2.3. Function

2.4.2.3. Dense Regular Elastic

2.4.2.3.1. Structure

2.4.2.3.2. Location

2.4.2.3.3. Function

2.4.2.4. Dense Irregular Elastic

2.4.2.4.1. Structure

2.4.2.4.2. Location

2.4.2.4.3. Function

2.4.3. Supporting Connective Tissues

2.4.3.1. General Characteristics

2.4.3.1.1. Chondrocyte cells

2.4.3.1.2. Lacunae: spaces within extracellular matrix

2.4.3.1.3. Avascular

2.4.3.1.4. Firm consistency

2.4.3.1.5. Permits diffusion of small solutes

2.4.3.1.6. Perichondrium: membrane that surrounds many cartilage structures

2.4.3.2. Types of Supportive Connective Tissue

2.4.3.2.1. Cartillage

2.4.3.2.2. Bone

2.4.4. Fluid Connective Tissuse

2.4.4.1. Blood

3. Nervous (Neural)

4. Muscular Tissue

5. Intercellular Connections

5.1. Desmosomes

5.1.1. Proteins cross-link adjacent cells proving strength and flexibility

5.2. Hemidesmosomes

5.2.1. Reinforce epithelial cell attachment to basement membrane

5.3. Tight Junctions

5.3.1. Proteins from a tight seal or permeable barrier between cells

5.4. Gap Junctions

5.4.1. Proteins form a channel-like junction through which small molecules and ions may pass