Mental Health (central focus)

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Mental Health (central focus) by Mind Map: Mental Health (central focus)

1. Brain Structures (CONNECTIONS MADE ARE IN PINK)

1.1. amygdala

1.1.1. emotional regulation

1.1.1.1. fear

1.1.1.2. agression

1.1.1.3. dysregulation in mental illness

1.1.1.3.1. hugs help regulate emotion by releasing good hormones and improving mental well being

1.1.2. emotional association with memories

1.1.3. odor recognition

1.1.3.1. can aid in sexual preferences when mating for animals

1.2. hypothalamus

1.3. thalamus

1.3.1. directs all incoming sensory information to its appropriate cortex region, which in turn processes the information and receives instruction to transmit specific sensory information

1.4. Brainstem

1.4.1. The brainstem controls vital body functions

1.4.1.1. vital body functions are developed first

1.4.2. consists of...

1.4.3. pons

1.4.3.1. connects to the midbrain and medulla

1.4.4. medulla

1.4.4.1. transition from the brain to the spinal chord

1.4.4.2. respiration

1.4.4.3. heart rate

1.4.5. midbrain

1.4.5.1. connects hindbrain to forebrain

1.4.5.2. relay center for...

1.4.5.2.1. visual info

1.4.5.2.2. auditory info

1.4.5.2.3. motor system info

1.5. basal ganglia

1.5.1. putamen

1.5.2. globs pallidus

1.5.3. composed of grey matter

1.5.4. central movement

1.6. hippocampus

1.6.1. long term memory storage

1.6.2. memory retrieval

1.7. neocortex

1.7.1. higher-order brain functions

1.7.1.1. sensory perception

1.7.1.2. cognition

1.7.1.3. generation of motor commands

1.7.1.4. spatial reasoning

1.7.1.5. language

1.8. frontal cortex

1.8.1. higher level thinking

1.8.1.1. decision making

1.8.1.2. judgment

1.8.1.3. reasoning

1.8.1.4. impulse control

1.8.1.5. problem solving

1.8.1.6. tuning into the physical sensations of your body and process your emotions to help regulate stress

1.8.1.7. helps regulate mental clarity and helps body work to your benefit

1.9. prefrontal cortex

1.9.1. executive function

1.9.1.1. conduction of communication

1.9.1.1.1. communication is essential when asking for help when under stress and mental illness

1.9.1.2. guiding

1.9.1.3. coordinating functions of various brain parts

1.10. brain lobes

1.10.1. frontal lobe

1.10.1.1. everyday planning

1.10.1.2. self management

1.10.1.2.1. self management by brain lobes can really benefit in terms of mental health

1.10.1.2.2. involves executive functioning

1.10.1.3. emotional regulation

1.10.1.4. higher order planning

1.10.1.4.1. brain lobes are involved in thinking about how your going to go about your day to promote mental health

1.10.1.5. problem solving

1.10.2. temporal lobe

1.10.2.1. transmits and processes signals to auditory cortex

1.10.2.1.1. listening to good music releases dopamine, your temporal lobe processes these signals from music and allows for the rest of the brain to associate it with good feelings

1.10.3. parietal lobe

1.10.3.1. signals of pain perception

1.10.3.2. processes signals of touch

1.10.4. occipital lobe

1.10.4.1. decodes visual information

1.10.4.2. processes visual info

1.10.4.3. sends visual info to eyes

1.10.4.4. consists of main visual center

1.10.4.5. allows for the distinguishing of shapes and other objects

1.10.4.5.1. beneficial for hunting behavior that evolved from tool use

1.10.4.5.2. female animals in short supply get to be choosy when picking sexual partner, and use their occipital lobe when discerning who they find attractive

1.11. caudate nucleus

1.11.1. memory

1.11.2. learning

1.11.3. repetitive behaviors

1.11.3.1. substance abuse disorders are formed through the learning of the caudate nucleus learning a behavior and then it becoming compulsory through the addictive cycle

1.11.4. habit formation

1.12. midbrain

1.12.1. motor movement

1.12.2. eye movement

1.12.3. auditory processing

1.12.4. visual processing

1.13. forebrain

1.13.1. telencephalon

1.13.1.1. cerebral cortex

1.13.1.2. subcortical structures

1.13.1.3. corpus callosum

1.13.1.3.1. separates brain lobes, & severed in lobotomy

1.13.2. diecephalon

1.13.2.1. thalamus

1.13.2.1.1. receives info and sends it to the appropriate cortex, involved in receiving info and sending it to the hypothalamus in hormone release

1.13.2.2. hypothalamus

1.13.3. processes cognitive, auditory, sensory info

1.13.4. involved in the forming and storage of memory/emotion

1.13.4.1. can be dysfunctional for those who have addictive personalities and are prone to substance abuse disorders

1.14. hindbrain

1.14.1. coordinates functions essential to survival

1.14.1.1. respiratory rhythm

1.14.1.2. motor activity

1.14.1.3. sleep

1.14.1.3.1. ESSENTIAL for mental health and healthy functioning of the body and mind

1.14.1.4. wakefulness

1.14.2. consists of...

1.14.2.1. brainstem

1.14.2.2. cerebellum

1.15. cerebellum

1.15.1. central regulation of movement, motor control, and some learning

1.16. hypothalamus

1.16.1. controls motivation and desires such as hunger, sex, and thirst.

1.16.2. main center for hormone control

2. Systems (CONNECTIONS MADE ARE IN PURPLE)

2.1. Limbic system

2.1.1. cingulate gyrus

2.1.1.1. direction of attention

2.1.2. loosely defined, widespread network of structures involved in emotion and learning

2.2. reward system

2.2.1. ventral tegmentum area

2.2.2. motivation shaped by...

2.2.2.1. rewarding stimuli with pleasure

2.2.2.2. learning what is pleasurable

2.2.2.3. association with stimuli

2.2.2.4. motivation is low with those suffering from depression

2.2.2.4.1. due to low prefrontal cortex activation

2.2.2.4.2. low levels of dopamine

2.2.3. mesolimbic system

2.2.4. mesocorticol system

3. Larger Concepts in the Brain (CONNECTIONS MADE ARE IN BLUE)

3.1. learning

3.1.1. hippocampus

3.1.2. caudate nucleus

3.1.3. cerebellum

3.2. life history and development

3.2.1. hindbrain develops first

3.2.1.1. involved in vital functioning

3.2.1.1.1. heart rate

3.2.1.1.2. breathing

3.2.1.2. brainstem and cerebellum involved

3.2.2. midbrain develops second

3.2.2.1. motor movement

3.2.2.2. eye movement

3.2.2.3. visual processing

3.2.2.4. auditory processing

3.2.3. Forebrain develops last

3.2.3.1. subcortical structures

3.2.3.2. higher order functioning

3.2.3.3. emotion

3.2.3.3.1. irregular with low levels of serotonin with mental illness

3.2.3.4. memory

3.2.3.4.1. negative memories can be especially salient in depression

3.2.3.5. cognitive functioning

3.3. bipedalism

3.3.1. developed in humans and allowed for tool use

3.3.2. advantage in terms of...

3.3.2.1. foraging

3.3.2.2. caring for offspring

3.3.2.2.1. releases oxytocin, good feeling hormone which is beneficial for mental health

3.3.2.3. efficient for locomotion

3.3.3. separated homids from apes

3.4. tool use

3.4.1. advantages

3.4.1.1. weapon formation

3.4.1.1.1. prefrontal cortex involved

3.4.1.2. hunting

3.4.1.2.1. involves higher order functioning

3.4.1.3. defense

3.4.1.3.1. in this case, anxiety/stress momentarily was beneficial

3.5. plasticity

3.5.1. newest form of brain development

3.5.2. allows for strengthening and weakening of neurons

3.5.2.1. neural connections create memories

3.5.2.1.1. involved in habit formation

3.5.2.1.2. practicing new skill

3.5.2.1.3. developing healthy ways of thinking

3.5.3. brain reorganization

3.5.3.1. blind people use the visual cortex not for vision but for auditory and sense functions that they use more regularly

3.5.3.1.1. more room for neural connections that are caused by more use

3.5.4. Nature vs Nurture

3.5.4.1. 70% of our genes are expressed in our brain

3.5.4.2. the environment can play a role in our mental health

3.5.4.2.1. makes one predisposed to mental illness due to increased stimulation of stress

3.6. executive functioning

3.6.1. prefrontal cortex involved

3.6.1.1. judgment

3.6.1.2. decision making

3.6.1.3. impulse control

3.6.1.3.1. not as efficient with mental illness

3.6.1.3.2. can be prominent in addictive personalities

3.6.1.4. problem solving

3.6.1.5. self discpline

3.6.1.6. reward system (VTA) can affect connection of prefrontal cortex with amygdala and other brain parts

4. Overarching Behavioral Categories (CONNECTIONS MADE ARE IN GREEN)

4.1. Mental health/emotional regulation/stress

4.1.1. anxiety/depression

4.1.1.1. involves...

4.1.1.1.1. amygdala

4.1.1.1.2. prefrontal cortex

4.1.1.1.3. reward system

4.1.1.1.4. hippocampus

4.1.2. emotional regulation

4.1.2.1. emotion

4.1.2.1.1. a subjective mental state accompanied by behaviors and involuntary physiological changes

4.1.2.1.2. activates the autonomic nervous system

4.1.2.1.3. no distinctive autonomic pattern for each emotion

4.1.2.1.4. cross cultural similarity and cultural conditioning involved

4.1.2.1.5. decorticate rage

4.1.3. violence and agression

4.1.3.1. agression

4.1.3.1.1. behavior intended to cause pain or harm to others

4.1.3.1.2. testosterone

4.1.3.2. medial amygdala

4.1.3.2.1. portion of amygdala that receives olfactory and pheremonal information which is then relayed to...

5. Social/Sexual Behavioral Connections in Orange

5.1. Endocrine System

5.1.1. hormones

5.1.1.1. chemically secreted by an endocrine gland, conveyed by the blood stream

5.1.1.2. regulates target areas

5.1.2. pheremones

5.1.2.1. chemical secreted outside of the body that affect other animals of the same species

5.1.3. allomones

5.1.3.1. similar to pheremones but affect animals of a different species

5.1.3.1.1. amygdala is involved in odor recognition

5.1.4. steroid hormones

5.1.4.1. located inside target cell and easily pass cell membrane

5.1.4.2. bind to DNA and affect genetic expression

5.1.4.2.1. involves changes in the brain in how the proteins are synthesized and which subsequent hormones and neurotransmitters are produced

5.2. reproductive behavior

5.2.1. sexual attraction

5.2.1.1. physical readiness to produce

5.2.1.2. emits stimuli that attracts members of the opposite sex

5.2.1.3. odors are affected by estrogen levels

5.2.1.3.1. amygdala involved

5.2.1.4. mutual attraction leads to next stage

5.2.2. appetitive behaviors

5.2.2.1. proceptive: females advertise readiness

5.2.2.2. males exhibit appetitive behavior

5.2.2.3. both genders exhibit this behavior for next stage

5.2.3. copulation

5.2.3.1. penis enters vagina

5.2.3.2. threshold ejaculates semen

5.2.3.3. refractory phase

5.2.4. refractory period

5.2.4.1. time for recovery, no sex happens for a period of time

5.3. Sexual differentiation and orientation

5.3.1. individuals develop m/f bodies and behaviors

5.3.1.1. gonads are indifferent before they are sexualized

5.3.1.1.1. sexualized by hypothalamus sending signals to the glands

5.3.2. testosterone masculinizes exterior tissues

5.3.3. turners syndrome

5.3.3.1. female only has 1 X chromosome, therefore her genitals are not completely developed, though still underdeveloped ovaries because of the lack of the SRY gene

5.3.3.1.1. without proper support and understanding of the syndrome, it could negatively impact mental health. Acceptance is important for mental health

5.3.4. organizational effect

5.3.4.1. hormones effect on brain and behavior caused by their presence in early development, or during the sensitive period

5.3.4.1.1. hormones affect the brain causing one to feel more feminine or masculine, gender is a spectrum and mental health revolves around accepting this idea