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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. What is memory? it is a collection of systems for the storage and recall of information.

1.1. - There is no universally agreed upon modal of memory. - Memory systems are imperfect. - Memory systems have limited capacities.

2. - Second stage of memory in which new information must remain for minimum of 20-30 seconds or the information will be lost. - The short-term memory acts as a link between the short-term sensory store and the long-term memory.

2.1. Working memory(short-term memory : is the temporary storage of information that is being processed a range of cognitive tasks .

2.1.1. Memory Span test: The Memory Test is a test used to Measure the Capactiy of Short - Term Memory . in the test Participants are given a series of items ( words , letters , and so forth ) and asked to recall the items in the order presented . A perso's memory span : is the number of items that can be relibaly recalled in the correct order : P R F H Z T K 5 4 6 8 7 You can increase the number of letters you remember by grouping them into CHUNKS . You can remember about 7 chunks.

2.1.2. The Baddeley- Hitch Model of Working Memory: Baddeley and Hitch (1974): proposed a model of working memory which has subsequently been revised a number of times. - Throughout the revisions, the model has three components: 1-The central executive 2- The vísuospatial sketchpad 3- The phonological loop. - They are slave systems to the central executive. 1) The central executive : This is the master controller of the working memory system. It's functions are thought to include switching attention between tasks, selecting/ignoring stimuli, and activating necessary , information from long-term memory. 2)The visuospatialsketchpad : This is the system that allows us to form visual images, rotate them in our minds, convert words into images, and so on. 3) The phonological loop : holds speech- based information. it consists of two parts: 1-the phonological store( The Ineer Ear) : It holds phonological representations( speech information) . The PS uses a sound based code to store information 2-the articulatory rehearsal syste (The Inner Voice) : ‏It is one way of getting information into the phonological store.

3. Early studies; William James: Principles of Psychology(1890) William drew distinction between primary and secondary memory.

3.1. 1- Primary memory now call short-term memory, it's defined as material that lasts a matter of seconds and it hasn't yet left the consciousness.

3.1.1. <Does it really last forever it is it just more prolonged?>2- Secondary memory consists of long-term memory, material is held forever in secondary memory and it does not exist in consciousness but can be brought to consciousness if desired.

4. Types of memory:

4.1. 1- Sensory memory

4.1.1. - In sensory memory information only stored for a brief period of time. Half-second for visual information, and 3 or 4 seconds for auditory information

4.2. 2-Short-term momery

4.2.1. - It is the second stage of memory in which new information must remain for a minimum of 20-30 seconds or the information will be lost. - The short-term memory acts like a link between the short-term sensory memory and the long-term memory.

4.3. 3- long-term memory

4.3.1. - Is a memory that lasts for years or longer and it contains everything we know about the world. - Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory it can be encoded into long term memory. It divided into semantic memory and episodic memory