Memory Retention in Second Language Acquisition and instruction: Insights from Literature and Res...

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Memory Retention in Second Language Acquisition and instruction: Insights from Literature and Research by Mind Map: Memory Retention in Second Language Acquisition and instruction: Insights from Literature and Research

1. Issues of memory retention

1.1. Attention and Awareness

1.1.1. Attended learning is far more superior, important and necessary of practical purposes in SLA

1.1.2. Preparatory attention and voluntary orienting vastly improves encoding.

1.1.3. Passiveapproach leads to slow and unsuccessful language learning

1.2. Implicit and Explicit Language Learning and Knowledge

1.2.1. Nature of implicit learning DEFINITION: Acquisition of knowledge by a learning process that takes place naturally domain free inductive process at least partly tacit and unavailable to conscious introspection Noticing, comparing and integrating corrective actions continuous communicative practice confronting mismatched between flawed and model performance retrials

1.2.2. Role of explicit knowldege DEFINITION: Conscious operation of learning how learners develop ability to use language and pragmatic knowledge in production (Ellis, 1994) e (noticing, comparing and integrating) stages: 1. input becomes intake through noticing and comparing. 2. intake becomes part of the learners' interlanguage system. success in L2 learning depends on implicit knowledge Controlled and constant grammar practice problem solving Memorisation Inductive and deductive approach lack of comprehension + gap in knowledge = misunderstanding (aids learning) (Ellis, 1994), pay close attention to input - central role in language pedagogy and formal instruction - facilitate implicit knowledge (role of explicit knowledge) (Jensen) vocab = meaning from context = good index of intelligence (Stenberg) vocab = learn + do (experience)

1.2.3. Conclusion: motivation + reading (implicit) aided by elaborative, explicit process of semantic.

1.2.4. Tasks and rules complex rules (implicit) simple and salient (explicit)

2. Second Language Instruction for memory retention

2.1. Learning and Teaching Principles

2.1.1. Incidental versus Intentional Learning Issues quality of information processing of unfamiliar words quantity and quality of rehearsal activities training of automatic access to word knowledge lexical knowledge functional archi-style model connectionist model quality and frequency if info process activities incidental vs intentional (tell vs not tell) Distributed practices (correct retrieval) is better than mass practices. (no over learning) reader should apply decontextualization skills and write down lexical info during reading. new info reactivated (short intervals - monthly intervals) high frequency word (familiar) i-1 level intentional complementary with incidental & context.

2.1.2. Task-induced involvement construct Search cognitive dimension attempt to find the meaning of unknown L2 words from Need motivational dimension based on drive to comply with task requirements Evaluation cognitive dimension compare given word/ specific meaning with other words/meaning Assumption higher involvement load, better retention of words

2.2. Instructional Approaches

2.2.1. Incidental Vocabulary Learning Vygotskian Activity Theory material constructed with Generative & Communicative task more background knowledge, better performance higher level of generation, more vocabulary knowledge gain role of modified input & output modified output group scored higher on comprehension of directions, vocabulary, recognition & production negotiation of new vocabulary in collaborative & problem solving manner, deeper input processing input, output, task

2.2.2. Grammar Processing Instruction explicit focus on form intake by explaining , practicing & experiencing input data simultaneous processing is difficult

2.2.3. Focus on Form Method incidental & prerequisite engagement in meaning before attention to linguistic features can be expected to be effective effective in communicative content-based classroom

3. Memory Retention in SLA

3.1. Fundamentals od Human Learning and Memory

3.1.1. retention + acquisition

3.1.2. Information-processing approach separate storage models information --> primary memory (short term memory) --> secondary memory (long-term memory) metacognition helps semantic network models levels of processing approach knowledge is stored through multiple interconnected associations, relationship or pathways

3.2. Memory in Second Language Learning

3.2.1. Working Memory Regulate info flow within the working memory.

3.2.2. Constructivist approach (inductive reasoning) General process of human inductive reasoning lead to language learning.

3.2.3. From the structure of adult language (not from genes)

3.2.4. Chunking Combine chunks of memory to a larger unit.