Types of situations that can cause traumatic stress in students

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Types of situations that can cause traumatic stress in students by Mind Map: Types of situations that can cause traumatic stress in students

1. Effect of abandonment trauma on development: Abandonment trauma leaves children feeling: Unsafe Unimportant unsure of how their needs are going to be met

1.1. substance abuse disorders

1.2. eating disorders

1.3. relationship difficulties

1.4. mental health disorders

1.5. anxiety

1.6. borderline personality disorders

2. References: Bridges to recovery, n.d, retrieved from Can Emotional Abuse Cause PTSD? - Bridges to Recovery https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-types/physical-abuse Lea Waters, Tom Brunzell, 2018, Five Ways to Support Students Affected by Trauma, Retrieved from https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/five_ways_to_support_students_affected_by_trauma Caroline Miller, (n.d), Retrieved from https://childmind.org/article/how-trauma-affects-kids-school/ Tips for teachers with students who have experienced trauma, Feb 20 2020, retrieved from https://www.weareteachers.com/10-things-about-childhood-trauma-every-teacher-needs-to-know/

3. Erasmus, S. (2009, June 19). New kid in a new school? Retrieved March 24, 2020, from New kid in a new school?

4. Fixed Mindset

4.1. This is where the student may not be seeking the opportunities for growth and expansion in the new environment but would rather stay complacent. This is all done when the student decide to keep negative thoughts inside and resist the change occurring.

5. Signs of physical abuse

5.1. Unexplained injuries, such as bruises, fractures or burns

5.2. Unexplained injuries, such as bruises, fractures or burns

5.3. Low self-esteem

5.4. Difficulty establishing or maintaining relationships

5.5. Challenges with intimacy and trust

5.6. An unhealthy view of parenthood

5.7. Inability to cope with stress and frustrations

5.8. An acceptance that violence is a normal part of relationships

6. How teachers can support students

6.1. Healing and repair

6.2. Growth and strength

6.2.1. 1. Positive relationships.

6.2.2. 2. Positive physical space.

6.2.3. 3. Positive priming.

6.2.4. 4. Using character strengths.

6.2.5. 5. Building resilience.

6.2.6. * Switch your mindset when dealing with disruptive kids from reprimanding / punishing to being affirmative and accommodative * Provide daily routine and structure - it helps calm students down. * Try not to judge the trauma / stress - do not be dismissive. Factors causing trauma have a wide range and may be cumulative. * Give opportunities to students for them to set and achieve goals - to feel that they have mastery and control. * Schedule regular brain-breaks or destressors for anxiety to dissipate * Ask directly what you can do to help!

7. How teachers can identify symptoms of emotional abuse

7.1. Trouble forming relationships with teachers

7.2. Poor self-regulation

7.3. Negative thinking

7.4. Hypervigilance

7.5. Executive function challenges

7.6. Withdrawal from friends or usual activities

7.7. Changes in behavior — such as aggression, anger, hostility or hyperactivity — or changes in school performance

7.8. Depression, anxiety or unusual fears, or a sudden loss of self-confidence

7.9. An apparent lack of supervision

7.10. Frequent absences from school

7.11. Reluctance to leave school activities, as if he or she doesn't want to go home

7.12. Attempts at running away

7.13. Rebellious or defiant behavior

7.14. Self-harm or attempts at suicide

7.15. Delayed or inappropriate emotional development

7.16. Loss of self-confidence or self-esteem

7.17. Social withdrawal or a loss of interest or enthusiasm

7.18. Depression

7.19. Avoidance of certain situations, such as refusing to go to school or ride the bus

7.20. Desperately seeks affection

7.21. A decrease in school performance or loss of interest in school

7.22. Loss of previously acquired developmental skills

8. Apps for Managing Stress

8.1. Breath2Relax – Gives information on deep breathing exercises for calming and reducing anxiety and a tool for tracking your activity and progress. From the U.S. Department of Defense.

8.2. Mindfulness Coach – Provides training in mindfulness to help with stress and relaxation as well as a variety of voice-guided practice sessions. It also has the ability for users to track their own progress. From the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

8.3. Virtual Hope Box – Provides guided relaxation techniques, tools for enhanced coping, games, and inspirational thoughts. From the U.S. Department of Defense.

8.4. PTSD Coach - Provides users with information about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including educational resources, information about professional care, a self-assessment tool, opportunities to find support, and tools to help manage the stresses of daily life with PTSD. From the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

9. Steps to helping children cope for parents

9.1. Try to limit exposure to television and social media content about the disaster. This can cause more anxiety through repeated exposure

9.2. Children tend to lose their appetite and sleep so try to ensure they have enough of both.

9.3. Its important to be honest with children about information. They can tell when you keeping infromation from them and this can lead to mistrust.

9.4. Remember that children tend to personalize situations. For example, they may worry about their own safety and the safety of immediate family members, friends and neighbors.

10. References

10.1. Coping After Disaster

10.2. https://www.cstsonline.org/assets/media/documents/CSTS_FS_Helping_Students_After_Disaster.pdf

10.3. The Trauma after the Storm

11. LaToria

11.1. Moving to a New Location

11.1.1. How to detect:

11.1.1.1. Detection is easy for the teacher! This is obvious and the teacher is even given a heads up from administration that there will be a new student.

11.1.1.2. Role of the PLC

11.1.1.2.1. During this time of knowledge, it is up to the teacher to bring this up during the PLC to take suggestions to ensure a safe and comfortable learning environment. One of the main topics of the PLC would need to be: What can the teacher do to assist a student going through this new transition in the students life? Get some background of the student and speak to the parents for clarification. How will the teacher acclimate the new student in getting along with the other students? How will this change the dynamic of the classroom? Is there fear or excitement? It is imperative that the teacher utilize their students in teaching the new student the "ropes" and the teacher be observant. If the teacher notices any students out of line or bullying take place, it needs to be addressed immediately.

11.1.1.2.2. Parents

11.1.1.2.3. Students

11.1.1.2.4. Teachers and Admin

11.1.2. Reaction:

11.1.2.1. We all know how it can be, being the new kid and all. Students have already made their cliques and know who they can and cannot trust and the new kid disrupts that sense of safety and comfortability. Also, from the new kid's perspective they've just left somewhere longing for what's familiar to them. Perhaps they are from a different country, state, city therefore there could be a language barrier or major differences in culture. There may be a sense of loneliness, solitude or even apprehension of the student wanting to meet new people depending on the personality type of the new student.

11.1.3. References:

12. Gordon, S. (2019, October 20). The Different Types of Bullies Parents Should Watch For. Retrieved March 22, 2020, from 6 Types of Bullying Parents Should Know About

13. Traumatic grief, by María Álvarez

13.1. REACTIONS When death happens in the close circle of people of a child or teenager, reactions can vary and it can lead to Traumatic grief. There are several general symptoms of this, an some more specific to detect in the classroom.

13.1.1. Pokorny, A. (2014, November 4). On being the new kid. Retrieved March 24, 2020, from On being the new kid

13.1.2. General reactions

13.1.2.1. Feelings and emotions: intense emotions of anger, sadness, anxiety, guilty feelings, new fears....

13.1.2.2. Thoughts: from having intrusive memories of the death, to blocking memories or denial, persistent thoughts about death, feeling the person gone close...

13.1.2.3. Habits: loss of apetite, trouble sleeping...

13.1.2.4. Social: isolation, avoiding places......

13.1.3. Specific to the classroom

13.1.3.1. Drop in grades

13.1.3.2. Difficulty to focus

13.1.3.3. Trouble with comprehension and memory

13.1.3.4. Social behaviors as mentioned before

13.2. HOW TO DETECT As educators it can be difficult to recognize if those reactions are product of Traumatic grief or typical behavioral issues. When these behaviors are too frequent is important to contact with school counselor or mental specialist for an evaluation. In some cases, teachers will need to alert to parents or tutors and make appointments with the specialist to design a plan of action

13.3. INTERVENTIONS

13.3.1. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: it can be also used with other kinds of trauma, such us terrorism, medical causes, community or domestic violence.....etc. It has several areas.

13.3.1.1. Gradual exposure: kids are assited to slowly talk and discuss about death.

13.3.1.2. Resilience building stress managements skills: behavioral management skills used by parents/tutors, but also reinforced for teachers, such as praise or positive attention, and relaxation skills.

13.3.1.3. Affective expression skills: encourage to express and label different feelings.

13.3.1.4. Cognitive coping skills: analyze feelings to know which thoughts motivate them and detect possible misconceptions.

13.3.1.5. Trauma specific interventions: the child/teen constructs a narrative of the death after getting control and understanding about their feelings.

13.3.1.6. Grief specific interventions: help the child/teen ti develop their grief.

13.3.1.7. Support from educators: educators can support several of these strategies but it´s important they work as a team with the child, parents, counselor and therapist. In school, they can contribute to developing stress management skills. They can help with relaxation, by supporting expressions of feeling or supporting cognitive coping skills

13.4. References: Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (n.d.). Supporting children with traumatic grief: What educators need to know. Retrieved from https://tfcbt.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/SPI4008271.pdf Peterson, S. (2018, May 25). Traumatic Grief. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-types/traumatic-grief

14. Natural Disaster by Maya

14.1. Common Reactions for Children and Teenagers after a disaster

14.1.1. Trouble falling asleep or staying asleep

14.1.2. Irritability or anger

14.1.3. A lack of energy or feeling exhausted all the time

14.1.4. Lack of appetite or the opposite eating all the time

14.1.5. Sadness, depression, hyperactivity

14.1.6. Trouble concentrating or feeling confused

14.1.7. Anxiety

14.2. Types of Natural Disasters

14.2.1. Earthquakes

14.2.2. Tsunamis

14.2.3. Tornadoes

14.2.4. Earthquakes

14.2.5. Floods

14.2.6. Forest fires

14.2.7. Disease Pandemic

14.3. Steps to helping students after a disaster for teachers/educators

14.3.1. Remind students that they are in a safe and secure environment.

14.3.2. Allow children a chance to respond in their own way and listen to their stories

14.3.3. Maintain all daily routines as that stability can be reasuring

14.3.4. Staying alert to changes in students’ usual behavior (e.g., drop in grades, loss of interest, not doing homework)

14.3.5. Engage your students in general conversations to allow them to be open and engaged

14.3.6. Providing emotional support by talking about the feelings that could be having as a result of the disaster. Talking would have them feel less overwhlemed.

15. Bullying, by Wendy

15.1. Types of bullying

15.1.1. verbal

15.1.2. prejudicial

15.1.3. cyberbullying

15.1.4. physical

15.1.5. relational

15.2. Reactions to Bullying

15.2.1. Stress, anxiety, and depression

15.2.2. Anger or frustration

15.2.3. Loneliness and isolation

15.2.4. Feelings of rejection, or poor self-esteem

15.2.5. Changes in sleep and eating patterns

15.2.6. Health complaints

15.2.7. Poor relational skills

15.2.8. School avoidance

15.2.9. Poor academic performance

15.2.10. Separation anxiety

15.2.11. Self-harm

15.2.12. Eating disorders

15.2.13. Suicida or homicidal behavior

15.3. Helping victims of bullying as educators

15.3.1. Reactive strategies (When the bullying has already happened)

15.3.1.1. Take immediate action whenever you witness or suspect any type of bullying. Make sure that your disciplinary actions aligns with your school guidelines.

15.3.1.2. Separate the victim and the bully when discussing the situation. Ensure the victim that whatever he/she shares is confidential.

15.3.1.3. Peer counseling: assign an older student with a younger student to help victims who are coping with serious emotional and mental distress

15.3.1.4. Refer the victim to the school counselor

15.3.1.5. Monitor the situation: Never assume that the bullying situation is fully resolved after the school as intervened.

15.3.2. Proactive strategies (Ways to prevent bullying incidents)

15.3.2.1. Teachers could work with the class to develop rules against bullying. Practice role-playing and do assignments that teach bullies alternative methods of interaction. Implement collaborative team building activities that reduce social isolation and increase adult supervision at key times.

15.3.2.2. Work with school administration to build a positive school climate where students feel safe. Train teachers to prevent bullying with programs such as the Anti-Bullying network or the School Bully Online.

15.3.2.3. Increase awareness among parents

15.3.3. Teach students to be effective bystanders by empowering them to stand up against bullying and report bullying immediately.

15.4. Gordan, S. (2018, November 30). 10 Bullying Prevention Goals for Schools. Retrieved March 22, 2020, from 10 Ideas for Educators on Bullying Prevention

15.5. References

15.5.1. Cordon, S. (2019, December 12). 15 Ways to Prevent Bullying in Your Classroom. Retrieved March 22, 2020, from 15 Ideas for Creating a Bully-Free Classroom

15.5.2. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2020, from Effects

16. Parental Abandonment by Susanne Marchant

16.1. Definition: Abandonment or neglect trauma is also known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of abandonment. PTSD of Abandonment is neuro-psycho-biological condition, a so-called “limbic disorder” or “disease of the amygdala” with symptoms that range from mild to severe.

16.1.1. Causes of abandonment trauma for children: Relationships are of vital importance to the emotional and psychological development of a child. When something goes wrong with these relationships abandonment or neglect trauma can occur:

16.1.1.1. A parent who is emotionally unavailable

16.1.1.2. Childhood neglect due to substance abuse, such as alcoholism or drug abuse

16.1.1.3. Mental illness, such as depression, in a parent or caregiver

16.1.1.4. A serious physical illness in a parent or caregiver

16.1.1.5. The sudden loss of a parent or caregiver who the child depended on

16.1.1.6. Significant family instability, such as absence or divorce

16.1.1.7. Signs of Abandonment trauma: Every individual is unique and may experience the trauma differently. However, certain symptoms may suggest a person is suffering from abandonment trauma:

16.1.1.7.1. Fear of being left behind or abandoned

16.1.1.7.2. Inability to form healthy relationships

16.1.1.7.3. Low self-esteem and feelings of self-worth

16.1.1.7.4. Anxiety and insecurity.

16.1.1.7.5. Depression

16.1.1.7.6. Episodes of self-harming behaviors

16.1.1.7.7. Self-judgment and setting unrealistic expectations, perfectionism.

16.1.1.7.8. Emotional flashbacks, leading to feelings of panic or intense emotional distress.

16.1.1.7.9. Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia

16.1.2. Treating abandonment trauma or associated disorders: Symptoms may be mild or severe. All diagnoses and treatment plans should be based on evaluations by mental health professionals of individual presentations. This can be achieved by:

16.1.2.1. Therapy

16.1.2.2. Counseling

16.1.2.3. Trauma treatment techniques

16.1.2.3.1. Techniques such as the following can help individuals learn ways of coping with anxiety, stress and interpersonal conflict without resorting to eating disorder behaviors.

16.1.2.4. medications

16.1.3. What can teachers do in the classroom? Trauma can make it extremely difficult for a student to learn to learn. Scientists have found that children who have been subjected repeatedly to trauma, in addition to the other symptoms, can have difficulty paying attention, which along with struggling to regulate emotions and form relationships, can make it very difficult for a child to succeed in school.

16.1.3.1. Strategies for teachers So what can teachers do to help students in their classrooms who have experienced abandonment trauma or another complex trauma?

16.1.3.1.1. Get to know your students, their background, what interests they have, what makes them tick.

16.1.3.1.2. Make sure you know what the warning signs of a child going into survival mode looks like and respond with compassion.

16.1.3.1.3. Create calm, predictable transitions so the child knows what to expect in terms of classroom and school routines.

16.1.3.1.4. Praise publicly and criticise privately.

16.1.3.1.5. Use mindfulness practices but adapt them to take into account possible triggers like closing their eyes, focus on external rather than internal issues

16.2. References:

16.3. Rosewood Centre for Eating Disorders. (n.d.). What is Abandonment Trauma? Retrieved from https://www.rosewoodranch.com/abandonment-trauma/

16.4. Anderson. S. (2017. April 13th). 40 features of post traumatic stress disorder of abandonment. Retrieved from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/40-features-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-of-abandonment_b_58ed2e74e4b0145a227cb909

16.5. Whetten. K et al. (2011. March 25th) More than the loss of a parent: potentially traumatic events among orphaned and abandoned children. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3610328/

16.6. Good Therapy. (2007-2020) Abandonment. Retrieved from https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/abandonment

16.7. Dorado. J. and Zakrzewski. V. (2013. October 23rd). How to Help a Traumatized Child in the Classroom. Retrieved from https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/the_silent_epidemic_in_our_classrooms

16.8. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2014). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

16.9. Psychological Treatments. (2016). In Division 12 of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved from Treatments

16.10. Videos

16.11. MDedge. (2013. May 30th). Childhood neglect affects adult close-relationship capacity. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BVpxuJ7guNc

16.12. Psych2Go. (2018. December 6th). 7 Ways Childhood Trauma Follow You Into Adulthood. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2oUfg7qNG0

16.13. Rowan Garlow. (2018. August 11th). Abandonment Trauma & Borderline Personality-Part 1: Dysfunctional Family Systems. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-WXgcUNJeWk

16.14. FIT-TV. (2016. May 27th). Abandonment and PTSD Hand in Hand. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CbTsR7WGIPo

17. Terrorism and Violence by Suha

17.1. Types of Terrorism: Families and children may be profoundly affected by mass violence, acts of terrorism, or community trauma in the form of shootings, bombings, or other types of attacks. The impact will vary depending on the nature of the event and on the experiences of children and families during and afterwards. Please watch the video in this link.

17.1.1. School Shootings

17.1.2. Bombings

17.1.3. Violent Attacks

17.1.4. Mass Violence

17.2. Reactions/ Effects/ Symptoms

17.2.1. Pre-school/ Early years

17.2.1.1. 1-Fear and feelings of helplessness 2-Anxiety 3-Cant fall asleep/nightmares/cant sleep alone 4-Lack of skill development in class 5-Separation anxiety 6-Loss of toileting ability 7-Loss of speech 8-Repetitive and less Imaginative form of play

17.2.2. School-aged

17.2.2.1. 1-Persistent feelings of safety and concern 2-Anxiety 3-Guilt or shame 4-Retelling of event 5-Overwhelming feelings of fear and sadness 6-Sleep Disturbances/ nightmares/ can sleep alone 7-Loss of speech 8-Repetitive and less Imaginative form of play 9-Difficulty concentrating at school 10-Headaches/ stomachaches with no symptoms 11-Reckless or aggressive behavior 12-Feeling that another shooting/ attack might occur 13-Withdrawal from peers

17.2.3. Teenagers/ Adolescents

17.2.3.1. 1-Self-conscious about their emotional responses 2-Feelings of fear and vulnerability 3-Concern of being labelled abnormal 4-Withdraw from family and peers 5-Guilt and shame 5-Express fantasies of revenge and retribution 6-Radical shift in perception the world 7-Self Destructive or accident prone behaviors 8-worrying about family members

17.2.4. Physical Injury (might have been injured during shooting or act

17.2.5. Irritability

17.2.6. Jumpy

17.2.7. Sensitivity to Sound

17.3. Response Strategies

17.3.1. Schools/ Educators

17.3.1.1. Preplanning

17.3.1.1.1. Planned Safety Drills

17.3.1.2. Provide support by listening to concerns and feelings. Educate students about different trauma reactions. Don’t assume all students feel the same or need help but try to accommodate students’ different responses.

17.3.1.3. Have patience with minor behavior problems. Stay calm when setting limits. Return to predictable school routines and activities as soon as possible. Refer students for professional help for any concerns about self-injury or dangerous behavior

17.3.1.4. Understand that attention and doing classroom activities may be affected. Focus on the present with gentle reminders about daily tasks. Consider modifying work or providing extra structure and instructions.

17.3.1.5. Realize that sleep difficulties are common and can lead to fatigue and poor participation. Suggest healthy sleep habits (e.g. a break from screens before bed) and calming coping strategies. Consider adjusting deadlines until sleep is stabilized.

17.3.1.6. Recognize physical reactions may confuse or scare students, making them even more afraid. Encourage students to use relaxation strategies such as slow breathing, stretching, or physical activity.

17.3.1.7. Identify the sources of everyday noises and that these are not dangerous. Reassure students that they are safe. Explain that physical responses (e.g. feeling startled, tense muscles, fast breathing) are common after a trauma when they are on high alert. Suggest using calming strategies such as slow breathing.

17.3.1.8. Suggest engaging in positive activities (e.g., volunteering, hobbies). Discuss ways to cope with sad feelings and the value of in-person support, talking with family or friends, rather than connecting via media. Discuss ways to support students with other adults they trust.

17.3.1.9. Create a sense of safety by returning to normal, predictable routines as soon as possible. Remind them that such events are rare. Point out ways adults make school safe.

17.3.1.10. Discuss that people did the best they could at the time. Give honest, accurate, and age-appropriate information. Let students know you will tell them the truth.

17.3.1.11. Suggest they limit the use of media to maintain balance and perspective. Offer to help find answers to difficult questions.

17.3.1.12. Verbalize feeling for young preschoolers

17.3.1.13. Allow more time to play and draw

17.3.2. Parents

17.3.2.1. -Spend time talking with your children. -Find time to have these conversations -Promote your children’s self-care. -Help children feel safe. -Maintain expectations or “rules.” -Address acting out behaviors. -Limit media exposure. -Be patient. -Address withdrawal/shame/guilt feelings -Manage reminders. -Monitor changes in relationships -Address radical changes in attitudes and expectations for the future. -Get adults in your children’s life involved. -Empower your child to get involved in their medical care. -Seek professional help. -Verbalize feelings for younger children allow more time for them to play

17.4. References: Recommendation for School Staff. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//pfa_for_schools_appendix_a.pdf Helping Youth after Community Trauma: Tips for Educators. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources/tip-sheet/helping_youth_after_community_trauma_for_educators_final_explosions.pdf Talking to Children about the Shooting. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//talking_to_children_about_the_shooting.pdf Creating School Active Shooter/Intruder Drills. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources/fact-sheet/creating_school_active_shooter_intruder_drills.pdf Age-Related Reactions to a Traumatic Event. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//age_related_reactions_to_traumatic_events.pdf Parent Guidelines for Helping Youth after the Recent Shooting. National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//parents_guidelines_for_helping_youth_after_the_recent_shooting.pdf For Teens: Coping after Mass Violence National Child Traumatic Stress Network. Retrieved from https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources/fact-sheet/for_teens_coping_after_mass_violence.pdf

18. Community Violence by Ahmed Marzouk

18.1. What is community violence?

18.1.1. Community violence is interpersonal violence perpetrated by individuals who are NOT intimately related to the victim.

18.1.2. Usually occurs without warning and comes as a sudden and terrifying shock

18.1.3. Includes sexual assault, burglary, mugging, the sound of gunshots, presence of gangs, drug abuse, racial tension, and other forms of social disorder

18.1.4. Children are especially impacted: More than 40% of youths surveyed (N = 2248) report exposure to a shooting or stabbing in the past year, and 74% reported feeling unsafe in one or more common environmental contexts.

18.2. Risk factors of exposure to violence

18.2.1. Low socioeconomic status

18.2.2. Troubled family life (e.g., broken homes, abuse, neglect, drugs, minimal parental involvement)

18.2.3. Low community cohesion

18.2.4. Urbanization and inner-city living

18.2.5. Individual factors (e.g., gender, age, race, ethnicity)

18.3. Prolonged effects

18.3.1. Higher levels of externalizing disorders, internalizing disorders, and PTSD among inner city youth in a meta-analysis that assessed outcomes from 114 studies

18.3.1.1. Directly experiencing violence was associated with greater externalizing and internalizing symptoms than witness.

18.3.1.2. PTSD was equally linked with victimization, witnessing, and hearing about violence.

18.3.2. Other effects include

18.3.2.1. Depression, dissociation, aggression, substance abuse

18.3.2.2. Poor academic achievement in children

18.4. In an urban sample of 615 teens, exposure to violence prospectively predicted an increase in all symptoms assessed (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, posttraumatic stress, and dissociative symptoms)

18.4.1. Gender makes a difference in outcome: Boys experienced more violence than girls.

18.5. Compared to boys, girls who experienced violence were more likely to experience dissociation, but not the other symptoms.

18.6. Prevention

18.6.1. Life skills and social development programs to help children and adolescents manage anger, resolve conflict, and develop the necessary social skills to solve problems tend to aid in prevention.

18.6.2. School-based anti-bullying and safety programs

18.6.2.1. http://www.stopbullying.gov/index.html

18.6.2.2. http://www.lisc.org/csi/

18.7. Resources

18.7.1. (n.d.). Community Violence - TeachTrauma. Retrieved from Community Violence - TeachTrauma

19. Divorce by Elena Krapivina

19.1. Children Divorce Statistics: "...50% of all North-American children will witness the divorce of their parents. Almost half of them will also see the breakup of a parent's second marriage".

19.2. The Negatives of Divorce

19.2.1. Psychological Effects and Symptoms

19.2.1.1. Emotional Effects

19.2.1.1.1. Shock, confusion

19.2.1.1.2. Feelings of uncertainty, hopelessness, helplessness

19.2.1.1.3. Abandonment, feelings of loss, grief, sadness

19.2.1.1.4. Fear

19.2.1.1.5. Guilt

19.2.1.1.6. Anger, rage, resentment

19.2.1.2. Mental Health Problems

19.2.1.2.1. Depression

19.2.1.2.2. Anxiety

19.2.2. Behavioral Effects and Symptoms

19.2.2.1. Impulsive behaviors

19.2.2.2. Confrontational behaviours (with peers)

19.2.2.3. Delinquency

19.2.2.4. Substance use

19.2.2.5. Oppositional defiant disorder

19.2.2.6. ADHD

19.2.2.7. Anorexia

19.2.2.8. Bulimia

19.2.3. Response Strategies

19.2.3.1. Teacher To Do List

19.2.3.1.1. Monitor closely

19.2.3.1.2. Provide consistency in routines, expectations, environments.

19.2.3.1.3. Keep the child’s mind busy.

19.2.3.1.4. Reinforce students’ strengths (opportunities to build on their strengths, leadership roles, positive self-talk, positive affirmations)

19.2.3.1.5. Build a climate that is sensitive to differences (don’t assume everyone has a mom or dad, family, one home)

19.2.3.1.6. Be flexible, make decisions based on the child, not curriculum requirements or standards.

19.2.3.1.7. Reduce expectations

19.2.3.1.8. Encourage conversations. Be available

19.2.3.1.9. Be compassionate

19.2.3.1.10. Keep in touch with parents

19.2.3.1.11. Refer for professional help

19.2.3.1.12. Teach survival stills: anger-management, problem-solving skills

19.2.3.2. Parent To Do List

19.2.3.2.1. Be patient

19.2.3.2.2. Monitor closely for any changes in behavior

19.2.3.2.3. Encourage children to recognize and label their feelings

19.2.3.2.4. Listen and make yourself available even for difficult conversations

19.2.3.2.5. Provide reassurance and offer support. Be close physically

19.2.3.2.6. Cooperate with the other partner. Present united front.

19.2.3.2.7. Control emotions, show restraint, use tact, be polite to the other parent.

19.2.3.2.8. Stick with routines, provide consistency, stability, structure.

19.2.3.2.9. Ensure your well-being

19.2.3.2.10. Seek professional help for yourself and the children as needed

19.3. Academic Effects and Symptoms

19.3.1. Low concentration

19.3.2. Lack of interest

19.3.3. Low motivation

19.3.4. Drop in academic achievement

19.3.4.1. More likely to repeat a grade

19.3.4.2. Higher drop-out rate

19.3.4.3. Lower rate of collage graduation

19.3.5. Absenteeism

19.4. The Positives of Divorce

19.4.1. Preserving children's mental health by removing them from a psychologically abusive household

19.4.2. Removing children from physical danger in a physically abusive household

19.4.3. Providing needed structure and predictability in families where parents do not cooperate.

19.5. References: Gina Kemp, Smith, M., & Segal, J. (2018, December 28). Children and Divorce. Retrieved from HelpGuide.org website: Children and Divorce https://www.helpguide.org/articles/parenting-family/children-and-divorce.htm Lyness, D. (2016). Helping Your Child Through a Divorce (for Parents). Retrieved from Kidshealth.org website: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/help-child-divorce.html Cox, J. (n.d.). Helping Students Deal with Death, Divorce, Etc. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from TeachHUB website: https://www.teachhub.com/helping-students-deal-death-divorce-etc Depression in Children. (2001, November 20). Retrieved from WebMD website: https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-children#1 Dowshen, S. (2015, February). Childhood Stress (for Parents) - Nemours KidsHealth. Retrieved March 26, 2020, from kidshealth.org website: https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/stress.html?WT.ac=p-ra Types of anxiety. (2019). Retrieved from Beyondblue.org.au website: https://www.beyondblue.org.au/the-facts/anxiety/types-of-anxiety Parker, W. (2019, September 13). How Couples With Kids Can Decide About Divorcing. Retrieved from Verywell Family website: https://www.verywellfamily.com/should-you-stay-together-for-kids-1270800 Morin, A. (2017, May 22). The Psychological Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved from Verywell Family website: https://www.verywellfamily.com/psychological-effects-of-divorce-on-kids-4140170 Parker, W. (2011, August 13). Statistics About Children of Divorce. Retrieved from Verywell Family website: https://www.verywellfamily.com/children-of-divorce-in-america-statistics-1270390

20. [Gayatry]

20.1. Abuse : Emotional and Physical

20.1.1. Emotional Abuse

20.1.1.1. Taking away one’s freedom and privacy

20.1.1.2. Separation from loved ones, work, and activities

20.1.1.3. Expecting to know their whereabouts and activities at all times

20.1.1.4. Frightening them with anger

20.1.1.5. Threatening them and those they love

20.1.1.6. Humiliating and belittling them

20.1.2. Physical Abuse

20.1.2.1. physical injury to a child or adolescent, such as

20.1.2.1.1. red marks

20.1.2.1.2. cuts

20.1.2.1.3. welts

20.1.2.1.4. bruises

20.1.2.1.5. muscle sprains

20.1.2.1.6. broken bones

20.1.3. Effects

20.1.3.1. May struggle with developing and maintaining friendships.

20.1.3.2. Don’t trust authority figures.

20.1.3.3. Don’t feel good about themselves or see themselves as worthy.

20.1.3.4. May show aggression and “acting out” are very common,

20.1.3.5. Don’t seem to care anymore if they are hit;

20.1.3.6. Lost the normal fight or flight reactions built-in to protect us from danger.

20.1.3.7. May fail to react to other dangers.

20.1.3.8. May stop trying to make friends or succeed at school or plan for the future.

20.1.3.9. May become anxious and fearful rather than numb and withdrawn.

20.1.3.10. May blame themselves for the abuse and feel that they must keep what goes on in their families a secret.

21. Discrimination and Minority Stress (Matt Hoyt)

21.1. What are discrimination and minority stress?

21.1.1. Minority stress is described as being unique, chronic, and socially based.

21.1.1.1. Unique

21.1.1.1.1. Not all students will experience situations that lead to minority stress, since it is based on specific aspects of identity.

21.1.1.2. Chronic

21.1.1.2.1. Minority stress is something that is usually consitstent and hard to escape from as it can happen in various parts of life. It is the result of minority individuals living in a racist, xenophobic, ableist, sexist, heterosexist, or cissexist society.

21.1.1.3. Socially Based

21.1.1.3.1. It stems from social institutions, processes, and structures and not from individual, isolated events.

21.1.2. Examples of discrimination and minority stress in schools

21.1.2.1. Forcing transgender students to use a bathroom or changing room that doesn't match their gender identity

21.1.2.1.1. As a teacher, you can advocate for your students to try to change school policy so that structural causes of minority stress are changed or removed. It's a matter of idenifying these stressors and understanding what students who are affected by them need to not feel the stress.

21.1.2.2. Not allowing religious minority students to practice parts of their religion at school (e.g. no spaces for Muslim students to pray, not allowing absences for religious holidays that aren't recognized by the state).

21.1.2.3. Lack of accomodations for disabled students and inaccessible classroom or school areas.

21.1.2.4. Dress codes banning natural hair or specific religious clothing.

21.1.2.5. Asking racial and ethnic minority students to speak on or defend issues just because of their identity (e.g. making a Latino/Latina student defend immigration, asking Black students specifically about poverty).

21.1.2.6. Using incorrect pronouns or pronouncing names inccorrectly.

21.1.2.7. Allowing slurs and discriminatory language to be used in class. Providing texts that use and promote the use of discriminatory language whether racist, sexist, heterosexist, etc.

21.1.2.7.1. For stressors like these, they could be reduced by being cognizant of student identities and make sure that instruction and the class climate, expectations, and norms support them rather than contribute to the systematic stressors that come with their identitities.

21.1.2.8. Lack of diverse role models in the school or in lessons.

21.2. Effects of discrimination and minority stress

21.2.1. Mental Health Impact

21.2.1.1. Can lower confidence and resiliency

21.2.1.2. Detrimental to self-esteem

21.2.1.3. Depression, anxiety, self harm, and suicide

21.2.2. Less motivation to succeed

21.2.3. Can lead to aggression

21.2.4. Physiological response similar to PTSD

21.2.5. Increased risk of dropping out

21.2.6. Isolation/feeling of lack of belonging

21.3. References

21.3.1. ACEs Resource Packet: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs ... (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2020 from https://www.childhealthdata.org/docs/default-source/cahmi/aces-resource-packet_all-pages_12_06-16112336f3c0266255aab2ff00001023b1.pdf Brown, Christia Spears. 2015. The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimiantion on the Immigrant Child. Whashington DC: Migration Policy Institute. Recognizing Discrimination. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2020, from https://www.tolerance.org/classroom-resources/tolerance-lessons/recognizing-discrimination What is Minority Stress? (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2020, from https://www.urccp.org/article.cfm?ArticleNumber=69

22. Sexual Abuse by Madelaine Estrabillo

22.1. What is sexual abuse?

22.1.1. Any non consensual act where one asserts power over another

22.1.2. One statistic shows 1 in 10 children will be sexually abused before their 18th birthday.

22.2. What factors increase a child's risk for sexual abuse?

22.2.1. Family structure: Children who live with two married biological parents are at low risk. The risk increases when children live with step parents or a single parent

22.2.2. Are foster children

22.2.3. Gender: females are 5 times more likely to be abused than males

22.2.4. Age: while there is risk for all ages, children are most vulnerable to abuse between 7-13.

22.2.5. Race and ethnicity: African-American children have twice the risk than white children

22.2.6. Socio-economic status: Children in low income households are three times as likely to be identified as victims of child sexual abuse.

22.3. What do I do if I suspect or discover child sexual abuse?

22.3.1. Direct physical signs of sexual abuse are not common. However, when physical signs are present, they may include bruising, bleeding, redness and bumps around the mouth, genitals. Urinary tact infections, STIs, or abnormal discharge are also warning signs.

22.3.2. Emotional and behavioral signals are common: "too perfect" behavior, withdrawal, fear, depression, unexplained anger, rebellion.

22.3.3. Their own sexual behavior is not age appropriate.

22.3.4. As a teacher, document all your concerns with dates and times, in order to support your claims. Know the reporting laws. Be vigilant.

22.3.5. Reactive (when you suspect sexual abuse:

22.3.5.1. As a teacher, document all your concerns with dates and times, in order to support your claims. Know the reporting laws. Be vigilant.

22.3.5.1.1. Procure the support of other teachers, principal or any staff by gathering tips, or other watchful eyes

22.3.6. Proactive (to accommodate children's emotional and behavioral needs):

22.3.6.1. Teach students about consent (as long as it follows school/state mandates)

22.3.6.2. Be aware of how you act in class. Model behavior accordingly

22.3.6.3. Be available for parents and students

22.3.6.4. Encourage conversations with your students, allow them to feel they can come to you whenever

22.3.6.5. Create equitable lessons so one gender or group of people doesn't have too much power over another during an activity

22.4. References

22.4.1. Supporting Victims of Child Abuse - Educational Leadership

22.4.2. http://www.d2l.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/all_statistics_20150619.pdf

22.4.3. 5 Tips to Help You Report Abuse in Your School

23. Gabriela Helping Children Cope with Witnessing a Traumatic Event

23.1. What do I do to help children who have witness a traumatic event?

23.1.1. Make the child feel safe. Children can benefit from touch, you can offer a pat on the back, offer a hug, or encouraging words to give them a feeling of security. The sense of security is so important in the aftermath of a frightening or disturbing event.

23.1.1.1. Useful resources for educators:https://wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u57/2013/child-trauma-toolkit.pdf

23.1.2. Maintain routines as much as possible. Amidst chaos and change, routines reassure children that life will be okay again. Try to work closely with the parents for the children to have regular mealtimes and bedtimes.

23.1.3. For PreK: develop a class about breathing. Help children relax with breathing exercises. Deep belly breaths can help children calm down. You can say, “Let’s breathe in slowly while I count to three, then breathe out while I count to three.” Place a stuffed animal or pillow on the children's belly as they lie down and ask them to breathe in and out slowly and watch the stuffed animal or pillow rise and fall.

23.1.4. Be alert to the behavior of the students who have experienced traumatic events. Be aware of both the children who act out and the quiet children who don’t appear to have behavioral problems.They may have symptoms of avoidance and depression that are just as serious as those of the acting out student. Try to work closely with your PLC to do your best to take the child’s traumatic experiences into consideration when dealing with acting out behaviors.