ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

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ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION by Mind Map: ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

1. increases greenhouse effect

2. TYPES OF POLLUTION

2.1. Primary Pollution

2.1.1. Natural Resources

2.1.1.1. Volcano

2.1.1.2. Plants

2.1.1.3. Forest fires

2.1.2. Artificial Human Resources

2.1.2.1. Combustion

2.1.2.2. Transportation

2.1.2.3. Industries and factories

2.1.3. Other Resources

2.1.3.1. Gas leaks

2.1.3.2. Methane CH4

2.1.3.3. Vapor

2.2. Secondary Pollution

2.2.1. Ozone

3. POLLUTANTS

3.1. Nitrogen Oxide NO

3.1.1. colorless, odorless

3.1.2. cause acid rain together with sulfric acid

3.1.3. cause photochemical smog

3.1.4. catalyst of sulfric dioxide (SO2) --> produces sulfric acid after oxidation

3.1.5. not to be confused with the harmless nitrogen gas N2 (78% of Earth's atmosphere)

3.2. Sulfur Dioxide SO2 (0.3-1.0 parts per million)

3.2.1. formed by burning fossil fuels, esp. coals: sulfur impurities get oxidised

3.2.2. main cause of acid rain; consequences: - acidifies soils - acidifies water bodies -reduces visibility -speeds rotting of statues and buildings --> corrosion

3.2.3. acid rain: - harmful effects on plants --> prevents healthy growth -->attacks waxy layer on leaves -> water loss -> plant is prone to diseases - lowers pH of water bodies --> water organisms that can't stand acidity die

3.3. Carbon Dioxide CO2 (0.04%)

3.3.1. traps heat --> global warming

3.4. Chlorofluorocarbons CFC

3.4.1. long life

3.4.1.1. some molecules end up in the stratosphere (higher atmosphere)

3.4.1.1.1. can destroy ozone layer

3.4.2. serious environmental problems

3.5. Carbon Monoxide CO (0.2 parts per million)

3.5.1. colorless, odorless

3.5.2. non-irritating yet very toxic gas

3.5.3. production of incomplete combustion of fuel

3.5.4. car exhausts

3.6. Ammonia

3.6.1. harm caused in water bodies --> toxic for aquatic organisms

3.6.2. present in low concentrations in soil

3.6.2.1. essential for plant nutrition

3.7. Ozone O3 (0.00006%)

3.8. Other Gases

4. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

4.1. Impact on Crops

4.1.1. Primary reasons

4.1.1.1. direct contact between the source of pollution and the plant

4.1.2. Secondary reasons

4.1.2.1. in plants: contaminations in contact with the root system

4.2. Greenhouse effect

4.2.1. sun's warmth/heat in Earth's lower atmosphere is trapped (by CO2 molecules)

4.2.2. icebergs melting

4.2.3. more frequent and extreme natural disasters

4.2.4. introduces crop failure

4.2.5. outbreak of diseases (recent example: Corona Virus)

4.2.6. Frequent extinction due to the effects (recent example: koalas are officially extinct)

4.3. Damaged ozone layer

4.3.1. intense UV light that reaches the earth's surface can lead to health issues (skin cancer)

4.3.2. potable water is limited

4.3.3. sea creatures don't have healthy food

4.3.4. global warming

4.3.5. CO2 contributes to ozone layer's consequences

4.3.6. made up of methane CH4 (10%) and other pollutant gases

4.4. Acid rain

4.4.1. View POLLUTANTS --> SO2

4.5. Various health issues

5. SOLUTIONS

5.1. limit amount of nitrates in water courses

5.1.1. adding economical amounts of fertilisers

5.1.1.1. minimises excess fertiliser finding its way to water bodies

5.2. Innovation on car exhaust systems

5.2.1. fitted with catalytic converters to help reduce pollutants from engine

5.2.1.1. will exhaust harmless nitrogen gas N2

5.3. Spread awareness

5.4. Conservation of energy

6. COMBUSTION

6.1. Fuels

6.1.1. Bio fuels

6.1.1.1. Bio gas or Bio diesel

6.1.2. Fossil fuels

6.1.2.1. Natural gas; Kerosene; Coal; Oil

6.1.3. Conservation

6.1.3.1. for example engines, public transport

6.2. Production of

6.2.1. Heat

6.2.2. Light

6.2.3. Air pollutants

6.2.4. H2O vapor + CO2

6.3. Incomplete combustion

6.3.1. not enough oxygen

6.3.2. Polluting

6.4. Complete combustion

6.4.1. enough oxygen

6.4.2. less polluting