Instructional Design and Technology (Megha Kapoor)

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Instructional Design and Technology (Megha Kapoor) by Mind Map: Instructional Design and Technology (Megha Kapoor)

1. Multimedia Instruction

1.1. To foster meaningful learning (leading to problem-solving transfer)

1.2. Combination of pictures and words

1.3. Not for a list of facts or arbitrary process

1.4. Better for explanations on how something works

2. History

2.1. Instructional Media

2.1.1. Physical means to deliver instruction (excluding teachers, chalkboard, textbooks).

2.1.2. Started with museums in the US in early 1900s, followed by radio, television/films (for training), computers. Museums Radio Television Computers Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) began in early 50s. No impact by 70s. 80s - Microcomputers used in public schools. Small impact by mid-90s. Used for drill and practice. 90s - more demand for internet/computer based education supplements, beginning of distance education, increased 'presence of technology' in schools, limited software capability, 00s and on- affordable, easy to use, accessible technology, increasing interactivity (learner to learner, learner to content, learner to instructor), greater potential for feedback from users, more learner control

2.1.3. Media Comparison studies = students learn well regardless of mode of delivery

2.1.4. Theories of Communication Focus on process, not just media.

2.1.5. Comparison between expected and actual effects of media on education practices

2.2. Instructional Design

2.2.1. Origins in WWII, psychologists and educationers designer training programs

2.2.2. mid 50s - mid 60s - Programmed Instruction Movement - Systems Approach/ Empirical approach, instruction in small steps, immediate response and feedback (formative evaluation), learner self-pacing, Behavioral Objectives Identify learner objectives (including desired learner behaviors and standards to judge behaviors). Link behaviors with outcomes. Design test to measure outcomes.

2.2.3. 60s - Criterion Referenced testing - measures student learning irrespective of other learners' performance Measure baseline behavior before instruction.

2.2.4. Types of Learning outcomes each with a different set of conditions to promote learning Verbal Information Intellectual skills Skills within this domain have a hierarchical relationship to each other. Pre-requisite skills to get to a 'higher' level skill. Learning task analysis to identify pre-requisite skills. Psychomotor skills Attitudes Cognitive strategies

2.2.5. 9 events of Instruction Instructional Design Model: Behaviorist model that draws on Constructivism Event 1: Gain Attention Through stimulus change, appeal to learner interests, Event 2: Describe the goal Students shouldn't be lost as to what the objective is. Event 3: Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Through questions. Event 4: Present the material to be learned Form of material is important to encourage stimulus, variety of materials (many ways of thinking about a problem). Event 5: Provide guidance for learning Guidance to learn through discovery, guidance - not the answer! Event 6: Elicit performance practice Encourage demonstration of newly acquired skill Event 7: Provide informative feedback Event 8: Assess performance Event 9: Enhance retention and transfer

2.2.6. Late 60s (Sputnik) - field test materials before final form (formative evaluation) vs summative evaluation (testing after final form).

2.2.7. 70s - growth of systems approach. 40 instructional design models in the US.

2.2.8. 80s - strong impact of instructional design in businesses, military (not education yet), application of cognitive psychological principles in instructional design, linked to use of microcomputers,

2.2.9. 90s - performance technology movement, analysis of cause of performance problems leading sometimes to non-instructional solutions (training not the issue), Aided by interest in Constructivism, Rapid Prototyping - early stages prototype, followed by series of tryout and revision cycles Internet for distance learning - must be tailored to incorporate useful instructional features from traditional classrooms (not replicate). Knowledge management - identify, document, disseminate knowledge to improve performance.

3. Learning Theories

3.1. Constructivism

3.1.1. We all construct our own understanding of the world. What is learned cannot be separated from how it is learnt.

3.1.2. Pre-existing knowledge Infant - language, numbers, movement Understanding based on what is already known Attention to pre-conceptions

3.1.3. Pursuit of meaning Function of content, context, activity and learner goals. Learner's puzzlement is stimulus for learning Cognitive conflict is stimulus for learning

3.1.4. Focus on concepts, not just facts

3.1.5. Customized curriculum

3.1.6. Instruction Tailored to student response Encourage students to analyse, interpret, predict Open ended questions, collaboration b/w students Experimentation and Exploration

3.1.7. Explicit examination, challenge conceptions of learners

3.1.8. Social Constructivism Understanding actively constructed through social interaction Deeper levels of understanding are developed than without social interaction Learning process interacts with and is inseparable from our personal and social contexts, experiences and beliefs

3.1.9. Instructional Principles Anchored learning activities to larger task Support learner in developing ownership (of problem and of solution) Design authentic task (match cognitive challenge) Task design should reflect complexity of real problem. Learning environment supports and challenges learner's thinking. Encourage testing ideas against different or opposing view points. Provide opportunity for reflection (content and process)

3.1.10. Problem Based Learning Learning Goals Instructional Goals should be aligned with learner goals. Problem Generation Raises concepts and principles relevant to content. Real world problems (matching complexity) Problem Presentation student ownership information should be too focused, presentation should tell the students what to think, or how to solve the problem, directly. Facilitator Role Open ended questions Challenges learner thinking

3.2. Cognitivism

3.2.1. Mind as Computer - Attempts to understand how we learn - what are our internal programs

3.2.2. Multidisciplinary

3.2.3. Learning w/ understanding

3.2.4. Usable knowledge = critical thought

3.2.5. Key concepts

3.2.6. Metacognition

3.2.7. Zone of proximal development

3.2.8. Social Cognitivism culture determines ind. development 2 ways acquiring knowledge how to think

3.2.9. Bloom's Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

3.2.10. Dual-Channel Assumption Animations processed in visual channel Words processed in auditory channel

3.2.11. Limited Capacity Assumption Limited about of info processed at a time.

3.2.12. Active Learning Assumption Active conversion of incoming words to pictorial representations in the brain, as the user learns Processing Information to Learn (Iterative not linear) Selecting Organizing Integrating Enables long term recall For Non-Interactive media Multimedia Effect (Words+Pictures better than words only. Use of both visual/auditory channels) Coherence Effect (exclude seductive details) Spatial Contiguity Effect (Words close to corresponding pictures = better for learning) Personalization Effect (Conversational, rather than formal is better)

3.3. Brain-based Theory

3.3.1. The brain naturally learns unless inhibited by fear

3.3.2. Emotion connection to learning

3.3.3. Conscious and unconscious learning

3.3.4. Learning must be contextual

3.3.5. focus on immersive, interactive experiences

3.4. Observational Learning

3.4.1. We learn from observing others behaviour and the consequences of that behaviour.

3.4.2. Acquired Behaviour Attention Retention

3.4.3. Performed Behaviour Production Motivation

3.4.4. Reciprocal Determinism Influences and is influenced by environment

3.5. 3 Models of Mind

3.5.1. Mind as a computer Learning as information processing

3.5.2. Mind as a brain Learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition

3.5.3. Mind as rhizome Learning as sociocultural dialogic activity

3.6. Behaviourism

3.6.1. We learn from exposure to environmental stimuli - positive & negative feedback.

3.6.2. Trial & Error (no thought)

3.6.3. Rote learning

3.6.4. Classic conditioning Natural 'animal' response Stimulus & Response

3.6.5. Behavioual or Operant conditioning Carrot and stick approach

3.6.6. Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) Drill and Practice

4. Models

4.1. Kemp Design Model

4.1.1. 9 Key Elements 1. Identify instructional problems and specify goals 2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning 3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components 4. State instructional objectives for the learner 5. Sequence content within each instructional unit 6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives 7. Plan the instructional message and delivery 8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives 9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities

4.1.2. Central focus is learner needs, goals and content analysis.

4.1.3. Small Scale model that can be used for invidual lesson planning

4.2. 4 Component Instructional Design Model

4.2.1. Component 1: Learning Tasks Should involve learning constituent skills. Whole-task experience Starting with simple tasks, leading up to complex ones. Scaffolding - A lot of support to start the learner off, very little support towards the end of the task.

4.2.2. Component 2: Supportive Information Supports learning of non-recurrent aspects of a task Mental models, Cognitive strategies Each task class has specific supportive info. always available to learners

4.2.3. Component 3: Just-in-time Information Pre-requisite to recurrent aspects of learning Information displays, demonstrations, corrective feedback For each recurrent constituent skill Only presented when learner needs it.

4.2.4. Component 4: Part-task Practice additional practice for recurrent constituent skill to achieve automaticity. Best when intermixed with learning tasks

4.2.5. Complex Learning Not just about learning individual skills in isolation. Not sum of the parts (many simple tasks don't lead to complex task handling) Constituent Skills Horizontal/Temporal/Can be done simultaneously Vertical - Bottom most skills are pre-requisites for higher skills. Transposable skills (Can be done simultaneously or in any order) Can become automated (expert) (recurrent) or not (novice) (nonrecurrent), depending on the user. Schema Construction Rule Automation - With enough practice, rules are automatically executed.

4.3. Knirk and Gustafons Model

4.3.1. Stage 1: Problem Determination Identify problem Determine learner capability and thereofre pedagogical goals

4.3.2. Stage 2: Design Develop objectives Decide strategy and media

4.3.3. Stage 3: Development Develop materials Implement and Test Analyze results Revise based on feedback

4.4. ADDIE Model

4.4.1. Analyse Who are the learners? What are their characteristics? What behavioral outcomes are expected? What are the learning constraints? How will learning be delivered? Pedagogical considerations to be taken into account based on learner analysis Timeline for project completion

4.4.2. Design Document instructional, visual and technical design strategy Apply instructional strategies according to expected outcomes as well as existing skills levels. Design user interface Generating a protoype including graphic design

4.4.3. Develop Put together a final product based on the design phase (including media, content etc.) Initial testing phase, and revision based on feedback.

4.4.4. Implement Learning product becomes functional Training aides (including manuals, videos etc ) are put out there.

4.4.5. Evaluate Formative At each stage of the process Summative At the final stage of the process. Tests whether learner objectives have been met.

4.5. Dick and Carey Model

4.5.1. 1. Identify goals

4.5.2. 2. Conduct Instructional Analysis

4.5.3. 3. Analyze learners and context

4.5.4. 4. Write performance objectives

4.5.5. 5. Develop assessment instruments.

4.5.6. 6. Develop instructional strategies

4.5.7. 7. Develop and select instructional materials

4.5.8. 8. Design and conduct formative evaluation

4.5.9. 9. Design and conduct summative evaluation

4.5.10. Assessments are designed before instruction is designed.

4.5.11. Emphasis on formative evaluation, constant evaluation, throughout the design process.

5. Web-based Learning

5.1. Materials

5.1.1. Information Access Provision of information (text heavy)

5.1.2. Interactive Learning Stresses active learner engagement in instruction, reflection, decision making and feedback to learner action.

5.1.3. Networked Learning collaboration and cooperation between learners, social constructivism

5.1.4. Materials Development learners creating eContent

5.2. Components for Teaching and Learning Settings

5.2.1. General Introduction to course, syllabus, reading course material

5.2.2. Lectures learners going to classes and presentations

5.2.3. Group discussions

5.2.4. Learning events field trips, activities, expert presentations

5.2.5. Communication between tutor and students, and between students

5.2.6. Self-study supervised practice, unsupervised reading at home,

5.2.7. Individual projects major assignments

5.2.8. Group projects assignments completed collaboratively

5.2.9. Testing assessment activities

5.3. Instructional forms and learning

5.3.1. Initial knowledge

5.3.2. Advanced knowledge

5.3.3. Expertise

5.4. Knowledge construction

5.4.1. provide experience in knowledge construction process

5.4.2. appreciation for multiple perspectives

5.4.3. learning should be set in realistic and relevant contexts, social experience

5.4.4. encourage learner ownership and voice

5.4.5. encourage use of several modes of representation

5.4.6. encourage self-awareness

5.5. Electronic Performance Support Systems

5.5.1. Resources Core info on tasks to be performed

5.5.2. Performance Contexts Realistic context, where learning will most likely be applied

5.5.3. Tools Means to access resources, for searching, processing, writing and display

5.5.4. Scaffolding Guidance for users, step by step

5.5.5. System to help users accomplish tasks and activities through instructions,resources and supports

5.6. Instructional Design

5.6.1. Learning Tasks Determine how learners engage with materials activities must be engaging cooperation and collaboration reflection purpose and context have real-world relevance, complex tasks, opportunity for students to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources, can be integrated and applied across different subject areas (lifelong, generic skills), tasks are not simple, do not have fixed solution, problems, investigations, inquiries, projects,role plays.tutorials, quizzes, simulations, worksheets.

5.6.2. Learning Resources Created through multiple sources Created for the web as well as supplementary materials Flexible access (no rigid structure) authentic examples books, databases, papers, documents, articles, notes, manuals, references, web links, case study examples, content pages, images and graphics, hyperlinks,

5.6.3. Learning Supports course schedules, instructions for students, procedural descriptions, announcements and messages given by the teacher.

5.6.4. Approaches Resource-based learning Online content delivery Content heavy, not particularly good use of technologies Teacher-centered learning Supported by discussion forms, Task-based learning learning activities are main elements

5.6.5. Assessment case-based activities, problem-solving, portfolio-based submissions, product submissions, peer assessment, collaborative elements.

6. Problem-based Learning

6.1. Learning Goals

6.1.1. Not simplified or pre-specified

6.1.2. Key facilitator role in encouraging meta-cognitive thinking.

6.1.3. Goals for self-directed learning, content knowledge and problem-solving.

6.1.4. Specific objectives for each problem and objectives can be achieved through a variety of activities.

6.2. Problem Generation

6.2.1. Problems must raise relevant concepts and principles.

6.2.2. Problems must be real. Rich, with a lot of information More engaging Ability to compare their answers to real life outcomes of the problems

6.3. Problem Presentation

6.3.1. Learners must own the problem. Problem should be personally relevant.

6.3.2. Don't make it obvious how to solve the problem. Don't provide only information that is relevant to solving the problem.

6.4. Facilitator Role

6.4.1. Using 'non-leading' questions to encourage critical thought

6.4.2. Not the provider of answers, but guide to solving the problem

6.4.3. Challenge learner's thinking Superficial, vague thoughts aren't accepted Peers should also challenge each other. Saying nothing equals agreeing.

7. New technologies give way to greater scope and use for socio-constructivist theories of learning.

7.1. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

8. Learner-centered psychological Principles (LCPs)

8.1. Cognitive and Metacognitive factors

8.1.1. LCP 1: Learning is effective when it is an intentional process of constructing meaning.

8.1.2. LCP 2: Learner can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.

8.1.3. LCP 3: Learner can link new info to existing knowledge base.

8.1.4. LCP 4: Learner can use variety of strategies to achieve complex tasks.

8.1.5. LCP 5: Learner thinks about thinking.

8.1.6. LCP 6: Learning is influenced by environmental factors (cultural, technology etc)

8.2. Motivational and Affective Factors

8.2.1. LCP 7: Motivation affects learning. Emotions affect motivation.

8.2.2. LCP 8: Learner's intrinsic motivation factors.

8.2.3. LCP 9: Motivation leads to more effort.

8.3. Developmental and Social Factors

8.3.1. LCP 10: Learning is effective when differential development across various domains (social, emotional, intellectual, cultural) is taken into account.

8.3.2. LCP 11: Social interactions influence learning.

8.4. Individual Differences

8.4.1. LCP 12: Different learners' needs are different.

8.4.2. LCP 13: Learning is most effective when learner background is taken into account.

8.4.3. LCP 14: Setting appropriately high standards, and assessing the learner as well as the learning process is important.