Introduction to Linguistics

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Introduction to Linguistics by Mind Map: Introduction to Linguistics

1. Definition

1.1. study about the structure of words

2. Phonetics and Phonology

2.1. Phonetics

2.1.1. The study of speech sound

2.2. Phonology

2.2.1. The study of sound patterns

2.2.1.1. Allophone (The variation of sound)

2.2.1.2. Phonemes (The meaning distinguish

2.2.1.2.1. Consonants

2.2.1.2.2. Vowels

3. Morphology

3.1. types

3.1.1. 1. BOUND MORPHEMES

3.1.1.1. Can stand alone

3.1.2. 2. BOUND MORPHEMES

3.1.2.1. Can not stand alone

3.1.2.2. types of bound morphemes

3.1.2.2.1. 1. Derivational

3.1.2.2.2. 2. Inflectional

3.1.2.2.3. A group of letters placed before the root of a word

3.2. TYPES OF MORPHEMES BASED ON THE POSITION

3.2.1. Prefix

3.2.2. Suffix

3.2.2.1. A group of letters placed after the root of a word

3.3. WORD FORMATIONS

3.3.1. 1. Blending

3.3.1.1. created by combining two separate words with different meaning.

3.3.2. 2. conversion

3.3.2.1. process of changing or converting the class of word without changing its form.

3.3.3. 3. compounding

3.3.3.1. The process of combining two words

3.3.4. 4. coinage

3.3.4.1. The invention of totally new words

4. Syntax

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. The arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in language.

4.2. Types

4.2.1. a. Simple sentence

4.2.1.1. Consists of a subject and a predicate

4.2.2. b. Complex sentence

4.2.2.1. Has an independent clause and at least one dependent clause

4.3. How to analyze sentences

4.3.1. a. Linking words together

4.3.1.1. a.a. Word order

4.3.1.1.1. To make the sentence make sense

4.3.1.2. a.b. Inflections

4.3.1.2.1. Indicate the relationship between words

4.3.1.3. a.c. Function words

4.3.1.3.1. Indicate the relationship between parts of the sentence (of, by, that)

4.3.2. b. Tree diagrams

4.3.3. c. Constituent analysis

4.3.3.1. The linguistic procedure which divides sentences into their component parts or constituents.

4.3.4. d. Complex sentence

4.3.4.1. A sentence that has more than one structure.

4.3.4.1.1. d.a. Conjoining

4.3.4.1.2. d.b. Embedding

4.3.4.1.3. d.c. Recursion

5. Semantics

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. The study of meaning

5.2. Types

5.2.1. a. Lexical Semantics Deals with the meaning of words

5.2.1.1. a.a. Areas

5.2.1.1.1. a.a.1 Lexeme (A word that contains various meanings)

5.2.1.1.2. a.a.2 Homophones (Similiar pronunciation, but different writing and meaning)

5.2.1.1.3. a.a.3 Homonyms (Words that look alike but different meaning)

5.2.1.1.4. a.a.4 Homographs (Spelled same, but different meaning)

5.2.1.1.5. Semantic Relations

5.2.1.1.6. a.a.9 Hypernym

5.2.1.1.7. a.a.10 Metaphor

5.2.1.1.8. a.a.11 Simile

5.2.1.1.9. a.a.12 Symbol

5.2.2. b. Componential Analyst (A way to analyze word meaning)

5.2.3. c. Prototype Theory (Represents a meaning in a category)

6. Pragmatics

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. study of how language is used and how language is integrated in context

6.2. Semantics VS Pragmatics

6.2.1. Semantics

6.2.1.1. Study of words and meaning in language

6.2.1.2. Focus on the significance meaning in literal sense

6.2.1.3. sentence & word meaning

6.2.2. Pragmatics

6.2.2.1. Study of words and meaning and concern to their context

6.2.2.2. intended or inferred meaning

6.2.2.3. Utterance meaning

6.3. The Cooperative Principle

6.3.1. Maxim of quantity

6.3.1.1. Give the right amount of information when you talk.

6.3.2. Maxim of quality

6.3.2.1. Be truthful/tell the truth

6.3.3. Maxim of relevance

6.3.4. Maxim of manner

6.3.4.1. Be clear and orderly

6.4. Speech Acts

6.4.1. meaning

6.4.1.1. interpret the meaning of an utterance

6.4.1.2. use term speech act to describe actions

6.4.2. types

6.4.2.1. 1. Direct speech acts

6.4.2.2. 2. Indirect speech acts

6.5. Be clear and orderly. (escribe things in the order in which they occurred)

6.6. Performative Speech Acts

6.6.1. Declarative

6.6.1.1. affect an immediate change of affairs.

6.6.2. Representative

6.6.2.1. commit a speaker to the truth of an expressed proposition.

6.6.3. Directive

6.6.3.1. speaker who attempts to get the addressee to carry out an action.

6.6.4. Expressive

6.6.4.1. express some sort of psychological state.

6.6.5. commisive

6.6.5.1. commit a speaker to some future action.

6.7. Taking It In Turns a term for the manner in which conversation normally takes place, It involves many kinds of behavior in addition to speech

6.7.1. eg : offer → acceptance/rejection "Would you like to visit the museum with me this evening?" → "I'd love to!"

6.8. Repairs : give additional insights into the way in which humans comprehend one another.

6.8.1. self-repair

6.8.1.1. when a speaker spontaneously notices a problem and solves it

6.8.2. other-repair

6.8.2.1. when someone is not quite sure about what has been said,

6.9. Politeness : can be define as showing awareness and consideration of another person’s self-image.

6.9.1. Politeness strategies : speech acts that express concern for others and minimize threats to self-esteem

6.9.1.1. Bald on-record strategy

6.9.1.1.1. The speaker directly addresses the other as a mean of expressing the speaker needs

6.9.1.2. Off-record indirect strategies

6.9.1.2.1. The main purpose is to take some of the pressure off of you

6.9.1.3. The positive politeness strategy

6.9.1.3.1. Leads the requester to appeal to a common goal and confirms that the relationship is friendly

6.9.1.4. The negative politeness strategy

6.9.1.4.1. The main focus for using this strategy is to assume that you may not be imposing on the hearer

7. Sociolinguistics

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. The study of language and the way people use language in defferent social situations.

7.2. Sociolinguistics analysis

7.2.1. 1. Dialect and accent

7.2.1.1. dialect

7.2.1.1.1. language varieties that used by regional or social groups.

7.2.1.2. accent

7.2.1.2.1. A way of pronouncing a language

7.2.2. 2. Phonological variation

7.2.2.1. pronunciation depends on the region dialect

7.2.2.1.1. water

7.2.2.1.2. Harry Potter

7.2.2.1.3. here

7.2.2.2. how to speak with people based on the age and a particular situation

7.2.2.2.1. help me to do this

7.2.2.2.2. could you help me, please

7.2.2.3. high or low style is a matter of politeness.

7.2.2.3.1. high

7.2.2.3.2. low

7.2.3. 3. Oral and written

7.2.3.1. speech or oral

7.2.3.1.1. more than one practice

7.2.3.1.2. inexplicit

7.2.3.1.3. repetitive

7.2.3.1.4. fragment

7.2.3.1.5. simple

7.2.3.1.6. Concrite, common, vocabulary

7.2.3.2. written

7.2.3.2.1. single writer

7.2.3.2.2. explicit

7.2.3.2.3. non repetitive

7.2.3.2.4. full sentence

7.2.3.2.5. elaborate

7.2.3.2.6. abstract, less common vocabulary

7.2.3.3. example

7.2.3.3.1. spoken

7.2.3.3.2. written

7.2.4. 4.multilingual communities

7.2.4.1. More than one language is used. this can be use to change the topic that the speaker is talking about

7.2.4.1.1. example

7.2.5. 5.social network

7.2.5.1. is an activities that people regularly interact with

7.2.6. 6. Differences between men and women

7.2.6.1. intonation

7.2.6.2. structural

7.2.6.3. power

7.2.6.3.1. powerfull

7.2.6.3.2. powerless

7.3. The notion of a language

7.3.1. prefer to start with the notion of a speech community rather than a language. they define a speech community as any group of people that speak the same language.

8. Psycholinguistics

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. a study of the language and the mind

8.2. Psycholinguistic Evidence

8.2.1. Observation of spontaneous utterances

8.2.1.1. deviate from the norm in some way are the most informative.

8.2.2. Psycholinguistics experiments

8.2.2.1. Naming

8.2.2.2. Lexical decision

8.2.2.3. Phoneme monitoring

8.2.2.4. Semantic verification

8.2.2.5. Word association

8.2.2.6. Priming

8.3. Acquiring Language

8.3.1. Nature

8.3.1.1. Innate human ability

8.3.2. Nurture

8.3.2.1. Language is a product of upbringing and environment

8.4. The Content -Process Controversy

8.4.1. Content Approach

8.4.2. Process Approach

8.5. The Rule-Governed Of Children

8.5.1. a. The rule used by children is simpler than that of adults.

8.5.2. b. Children’s own rules of grammar are more important to them than mere imitation.

8.5.3. c. Children do not formulate a new rule overnight, and suddenly replace the old one with a new one.

8.6. Learning The Meaning Of The Words

8.6.1. children may use a word only in a particular context.

8.6.1.1. a. Under generalization

8.6.1.1.1. When a child uses a word in a more limited way than adults do.

8.6.1.2. b. Overgeneralization

8.6.1.2.1. The extension of a rule beyond to its proper limits.

8.7. Recognizing words

8.7.1. Understanding speech by taking down a mental dictation perspective is wrong. Understanding speech is active not passive process.

8.8. Uunderstanding syntax

8.9. The Human’s Language Abilities

8.9.1. a. Speech Production

8.9.1.1. Words selection

8.9.1.2. Integration of syntax

8.9.2. b. Speech Comprehension

8.9.2.1. Slips of the tongue

8.9.2.1.1. Selection errors

8.9.2.1.2. Assemblage errors

8.9.2.2. Pauses (where the speaker stops to think)

8.10. Speech Disorders

8.10.1. Aphasia - Impairs a person's ability to process language, but not affect their intelligence.

8.10.1.1. Broca aphasia (non-fluent aphasia)

8.10.1.2. Wernicke aphasia (fluent aphasia)

8.11. Speech Comprehension

8.11.1. the process of converting speech-pressure changes back into meaning.

8.11.1.1. a. Construction Process - Listeners normally depend very much on what they expect to hear.

8.11.1.1.1. Syntactic approach - Listeners have at their command a battery of mental strategies

8.11.1.1.2. Semantic approach - Listeners are presumed to work from the interpretation of a sentence that will be conveying.

8.11.1.2. b. Utilization Process

8.11.1.2.1. Speech act

8.11.1.2.2. Prepositional content

8.11.1.2.3. Thematic structure

9. Stylistics

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. explores how readers interact with the language

9.2. 2 types of foregrounding

9.2.1. 1. paralellism

9.2.1.1. unexpected regularity

9.2.1.1.1. The use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same or similar construction.

9.2.2. 2. deviation

9.2.2.1. unexpected irregularity

9.2.2.1.1. An idea is presented in a different way. The concept of style is based on unexpected norm of language.

9.3. Types of stylistics

9.3.1. 1. Phonological Level

9.3.1.1. the combination of sounds into organized units of speech.

9.3.1.2. repetition

9.3.1.2.1. Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds.

9.3.1.3. Assonance

9.3.1.3.1. literary device using repeated vowel sound.

9.3.2. 2. Graphological Level

9.3.2.1. the arrangement of words, the appearance of the text on a page.

9.3.3. 3. Lexical Level

9.3.3.1. Lexis is the total numbers of word forms Words may be repeated Synonyms or similar words may be used.

9.3.3.2. Type of meanings

9.3.3.2.1. 1. Primary

9.3.3.2.2. 2. Derivatives

9.3.3.2.3. 3. Contextual

9.3.4. 4. Syntactic Level

9.3.4.1. Studies description of rules of positioning of words in a sentence.

9.3.5. 5. Semantic Level

9.3.5.1. Semantic deals with the level of meaning in language. How word similar or different are related.

9.3.5.2. 1. Metaphor

9.3.5.2.1. Identification between two entities that have or seem to have nothing in common

9.3.5.3. 2. Personification

9.3.5.3.1. Figure of speech where human qualities are given to non-living objects

9.3.5.4. 3. Simile

9.3.5.4.1. Compare two things that belong to different nature or domain.

9.3.6. 6. Morphological Level

9.3.6.1. study of the smallest grammatical units of language and their formation into words.

9.3.7. 7. Discourse level

9.3.7.1. Is any written or spoken communication. Discourse can also be described as the expression of thought through language.

9.3.8. 8. News

9.3.8.1. The story consists of a sequence of events.

9.3.9. 9. Advertising

9.3.9.1. present their message briefly and in an eye-catching way

10. Corpus Linguistics

10.1. definition

10.1.1. study of a language based on large colections of “real life” language use stored in corpora

10.2. corpus

10.2.1. Corpus is a collection of natural language constructed with a specific purpose

10.3. corpora

10.3.1. the plural of corpus

10.4. the function of corpus linguistics

10.4.1. to discover the pattern and the authentic meaning of a language use through analysis of actual usage

10.5. register variation consists of varieties of language which are used for differents situation

10.5.1. general

10.5.1.1. fiction

10.5.1.2. academic prose

10.5.1.3. newspaper

10.5.1.4. casual conversation

10.5.2. specific

10.5.2.1. scientific text

10.5.2.2. literary critism

10.5.2.3. linguistic studies

10.6. the advantages of corpus linguistic

10.6.1. Investigate almost any language

10.6.2. Discover not only the pattern of languages but the extent to which they are used

10.6.3. more objective view of language

10.7. applying corpus linguistic to teaching

10.7.1. Syllabus Design the syllabus organizes the teacher;s decisions regarding the focus of a class with respect to the students' needs

10.7.2. material development

10.7.2.1. the development of materials relies on a developer's intuitive sense of what students need to learn

10.7.2.2. the materials developer could conduct the analysis or simply use a published corpus as a reference guide

10.8. goals and function

10.8.1. goals

10.8.1.1. 1. The potential different meanings and uses of common word

10.8.1.2. 2. useful phrases and typical colocation they might use themselves

10.8.1.3. 3. the structure and nature of both written and spoken discourse

10.8.1.4. 4.The certain language features and more typical of some kind of text than others

10.8.2. function

10.8.2.1. 1. Compare language use of student/native speaker, standart english/scientific english, written/spoken

10.8.2.2. 2. Analyze the language in book, reader and course book

10.8.2.3. 3.Generate excercises and student activities

10.8.2.4. 4. examine work order

10.9. problem

10.9.1. 1. don't get the slang word

10.9.2. 2. some students has their own learning style

10.9.3. 3. Avaibility

10.9.4. 4. the choice of corpus still limited data