Foundations of Adult Learning

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Foundations of Adult Learning by Mind Map: Foundations of Adult Learning

1. Adult Learning Theories

1.1. Behaviorist

1.1.1. Conditioning of learner

1.1.2. Instructor controls learner

1.2. Cognitive

1.2.1. Focus on learner

1.2.2. Instruction as a product of learner needs

1.2.3. Active learning Learning through activities and projects Higher levels of connection to material learned Greater retention of learning

1.2.4. Social Learning Incorporation of social learning into Cognitive theory Project based learning Group projects Learning from others in the group Culture and peer group included in learning needs Consideration of differences in learners Learning from other cultures

1.2.5. Constructivist Build knowledge based on previous experiences Instructor facilitates learning based on the needs of each learner

1.3. Psychodynamic

1.3.1. Learning focused around emotions Emotions can prevent or enhance learning Create positive learning environments for greatest learning

1.3.2. Incorporates conscious and unconscious actions Stress and anxiety can override the ability to learn

1.4. Humanistic

1.4.1. Each person has a unique perspective Learning from the perspective of others

1.4.2. Individual's desire to grow leads learning No learning will occur if individual does not want to learn Motivated learners learn the most

2. Generational Considerations

2.1. Baby Boomers

2.1.1. Pride comes from hard work Generation known as workaholics

2.2. Generation X

2.2.1. Skill more important than working hard Willing to learn more to work less

2.2.2. Good work-life balance

2.3. Millenials

2.3.1. Value work-life balance and community outreach Tech savy Use of technology in most jobs

2.4. Generation Z

2.4.1. Have never known a world without smartphones Technology is part of who they are

2.4.2. Entrepreneurs

2.5. Learning theories

2.5.1. Action Group project learning Often involves service projects

2.5.2. Experiential Learning through experiences Activities and projects with or without a group to promote learning

2.5.3. Project-Based Group problem solving for learning Often research based from a given problem

2.5.4. Self-Directed Individual is responsible for learning Individual designs and implements learning plan Requires a motivated learner

3. Cultural Competency

3.1. Cultural Intelligence

3.1.1. Understanding cultural behavior

3.1.2. Individual vs. group behaviors

3.2. Cultural Respect

3.2.1. Reduces healthcare disparities

3.2.2. Builds trust

3.2.3. Bridges gaps between cultures

3.3. Cultural Competence

3.3.1. Race Physical features of a person

3.3.2. Ethnicity Traditions and customs

3.3.3. Stereotype Assumption based on common characteristics Not true of each person

3.3.4. Prejudice Harm to another based on judgement

4. Technology

4.1. Digital Divide

4.1.1. Generational differences in technology use

4.1.2. Older generations typically have greater difficulty with using technology

4.1.3. Challenges for older learners using technology to learn new information

4.1.4. Bridging the gap in technology use Varied instruction type for learners Clear instructions for each step Tutorials for use of technology

4.2. Online vs. Face-to-face

4.2.1. Online Content able to reach more people Fewer time constraints Ability to review material presented Ability to complete at individual pace

4.2.2. Face-to-face Greater ability to ask questions Non-verbal communication Greater interaction with peers Learn from the questions of other learners Real time feedback with hands-on skills

4.3. Future of Adult Learning

4.3.1. Informal and incidental learning

4.3.2. Consideration of feelings, values, and culture

4.3.3. Adapting to needs of the learner

4.3.4. Teaching learner how to learn

4.3.5. Incorporate each domain into learning experiences Cognitive Thinking Psychomotor Hands-on/"doing" Affective Feeling

5. Positive Thinking

5.1. Neuroscience of change

5.1.1. Coach vs Leader Coach to allow for best performance of follower Empower others to grow and develop Jacobs (2011) found manger feedback had limited impact on employees Active participation of employee yielded better improvement

5.1.2. Cognitive dissonance reduction Brain makes decisions to avoid conflict More difficult to make a conflicting decision

5.1.3. Ideas have lower neuron threshold for activation Increased firing of idea neurons leads to new pathways in the brain

5.2. Effects of stress on leadership

5.2.1. Anxiety impedes brain function Decreases motivation to work

5.2.2. Reasoning is affected by emotions Negative attitude leads to nonproductive thinking

5.2.3. Brain is created to protect us from danger Stress activates the amygdala When the amygdala is activated decision making is impaired

5.3. Mindfulness and Compassion

5.3.1. Our mind creates our experience

5.3.2. Leads to higher emotional and social intellegence Allows for decreased stress Less stress produces higher cognitive skills

5.3.3. Empowers the brain to achieve more

6. Social Intelligence

6.1. Impostor Syndrome

6.1.1. Feeling like a fake

6.1.2. Doubting your abilities

6.1.3. Overcoming Impostor Syndrome Accept that you had a role in success Define your value Do not compare yourself to others Nobody knows everything

6.2. Empathy

6.2.1. Ability to understand the feelings of others

6.2.2. Transformational leadership Leader recognizes the feelings of the follower Leader is considerate of followers feelings Leader coaches follower to do their best

6.2.3. Facilitates teamwork Acknowledging the perspective of others on the team Helps reduce conflict among team members

6.3. Trust required to grow an organization

6.3.1. If an employee does not trust the leader, there will not be growth

6.3.2. Organizations with trust had greatest success Employee able to grow when they feel trusted and valued

6.4. Innovation

6.4.1. Creativity needed for effective leadership There is no change without innovation No growth without change

6.4.2. Divergent thinking Ability to think in new and different ways Allows for greater problem solving Allows for greater ability to change

6.5. Resilience

6.5.1. Responding less to negative emotions Adapting to an insult or stressor Ability to take insults and negativity with little to no effect on the outcome

6.5.2. Emotional flexibility Ability to come back from a difficult situation Ability to grow from negative feedback

7. Ideas into Action

7.1. Change Process

7.1.1. Activation process initiated for change

7.1.2. Other areas of brain become activated to analyze change activation

7.1.3. Emotional response to change

7.1.4. Conditioning Automatic response of brain Formed from memory

7.1.5. Application Occurs when brain accepts change If attention is not maintained, change can stop

7.1.6. Motivated reasoning Emotions are in alignment with change If motivation is not present, change will not occur

7.2. Role of emotions in change

7.2.1. Amygdala response controls change Positive emotions can enhance change Negative emotions can override change

7.3. Mel Robbins

7.3.1. Autopilot A state of doing the same routine Unable to activate change on autopilot Not performing at your best

7.3.2. Emergency Brake Not completing activated change Pulling the plug on an idea before you engage Prevents growth and development

7.3.3. 5 second rule If you do not act on an impulse within 5 seconds, you will not do the task When activated within 5 seconds of an impulse, greatest chance for change

8. Coaching the Brain

8.1. Thinking brain

8.1.1. Cerebral cortex Controls decisions and actions Based on previous experience Short term memory Focus on the "now" Risk-benefit anaylsis Ability to take risks Assessing rewards over risks

8.1.2. Action centers of the brain Required to initiate decision or change

8.2. Feeling brain

8.2.1. Hippocampus Long term memory Previous experiences effect emotions Past failures can prevent change

8.2.2. Amygdala Emotions including fear Fear activation prevents change Override fear for change to occur

8.2.3. Ventral Striatum Pleasure from reward Learning from positive feedback

8.2.4. Anxiety Overrides ability to make decisions

8.3. Creating effective change

8.3.1. Mirror neurons Pick up intentions, actions, and emotions of others Recognize if your feelings are or should be different Cognitive perspective taking Thinking/feeling what others are thinking/feeling

8.3.2. Assess potential conflicts Consider both sides Recognize conflicting feelings Create trust in others to reduce conflict

8.3.3. Assess risks Create a plan for managing risks Potential cost of risks Is the change necessary Is the change beneficial

8.3.4. Focus on solutions not the problems Innovative ideas for change

8.3.5. Learn from past mistakes and successes Do not let past failures prevent new ideas

8.3.6. Focus on rewards of change How will the change impact others Focus on the positive aspects of change

8.3.7. Activate change Block brain centers that say "stop" Override impostor syndrome Activate brain regions to take action