NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle

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NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle by Mind Map: NS: Yanda, Yaso, Jasmine, Anaelle

1. Scope & Application (Yaso)

1.1. different branches

1.1.1. physics nature and properties of matter and energy

1.1.2. chemistry the substance of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions

1.1.3. biology living organisms

1.1.4. geology physical structure and substance of the earth

1.1.5. astronomy celestial objects, space and the physical universe as a whole

1.2. purpose

1.2.1. we use natural science to understand the natural world around us relies on empirical evidence: what we perceive with our senses

1.2.2. the aim of natural sciences is to establish laws or rules that apply generally most laws are causal. they offer a prediction of what can happen as a consequence of an event

1.3. why we use it

1.3.1. understanding science is important for the general public as well as the scientific community it's a part of our daily lives this knowledge is shared as we have a common understanding of scientific concepts

2. Language & Concepts ( Jasmine )

2.1. Key Concepts

2.1.1. Allow others to understand whether something qualifies as part of natural science Further allows us to know what makes up various natural sciences

2.1.2. logical language Must explain causes and effect in order to clarify what the findings signify

2.2. Key Terms

2.2.1. Give AOK a good foundation and structure

2.2.2. Vocabulary is precise Allows scientists to understand and communicate Understand and know what others are saying Distinguish parts from others

2.2.3. Examples case study correlation statistical Holistic aim hypothesis method results conclusion

2.3. Language

2.3.1. Logical Language

2.3.2. How scientists distribute findings to world Very important as language they uses affects how others absorb knowledge scientists are attempting to share Mathematical language is central Must be careful if uncertain about something when communicating

2.4. Metaphors

2.4.1. Are they appropriate Give abstract things a human value; easier to understand scientific concepts can further relate to a previously known concept when understanding a new one Help use to understand things or discover new things; helping us learn Ie on how volcanoes form Where rain comes from Makes complicated things more understandable Alternative to making new words; as scientific subjects have too much specific vocabulary, would become complicated

2.4.2. Define: literary figure of speech; describes subject by supporting it on some comparison Examples: Electrons get excited/promoted ( when jumping shells ) Florine is hungry for electrons

2.4.3. Models = realistic representation of metaphor

2.4.4. Used to solve particular problems and make future predictions

2.5. Conventions

2.5.1. Ways that things are done within a particular activity or area Natural sciences: rules or guidelines for experimental procedures and publishing of results ensure replicability of finding of experiment ensures presentation of results is accurate with very precise language and numbers

2.6. Non-language forms of communication

2.6.1. Symbols constants planck constant = h caesium hyperfine frequency = DeltanuCs Speed of light in a vacuum = c measurement units time = seconds length = metres electrical current = amps mass = kilograms

2.6.2. Diagrams

2.6.3. Latin Expressions combination nova = means new combination ie Klebsiella pneumonia comb.nov ex nihilo nihil fit = means nothing comes from nothing ( example all cells come from pre-existing cells )

2.6.4. Classification systems Species Elements Quarts

3. Methodology (Yanda)


3.1.1. CLINICAL TRIALS Measurable, controllable, repeatable Collection of data → does it work (... is the prediction correct?) Double-Blinded: distribution of placebo and the real product through random selection or sampling Randomised: doctors would not know themselves what is prescribed to patients (placebo or the real product) Outcome peer review and repetition of the experiments untill approved refutation

3.1.2. FIELD STUDY Using: Inductive Method Observations Collection of data & looking for patterns Interpretation of data (looking for strong correlation) Hypothesis / Conjecture (explains the data collected Theory


3.2.1. HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD measurable, controllable, repeatable observations/data Outcomes: confirmation of the hypothesis with peer review and repetition untilll apporved refutation/falsification

3.2.2. INDUCTIVE METHOD Observations Collection of data & looking for patterns Interpretation of data (looking for strong correlation)

3.3. Theory VS Law

3.3.1. Theory: explains why natural phenomena occur

3.3.2. Law: summaries a set of observations about natural phenomena

3.4. Precision VS Accuracy

3.4.1. Accuracy: the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured

3.4.2. Precision: the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made the same way

4. Historical Development (Anaelle)

4.1. Our current knowledge in the natural sciences is largely dependant on past experiments and past discoveries

4.2. Thomas Kuhn

4.2.1. It was believed that the history of science was linear, a rational progression characterises by the accumulation of knowledge - TK changed this understanding

4.2.2. He published a book in 1962, which claimed that scientific discovery was cyclical not linear Science evolution is dynamic and constantly changing Connected to environmental changes that happen on earth

4.2.3. Structure of scientific revolutions (PARADIGM SHIFT) NORMAL PHASE: a scientific model of understanding is followed - Kuhn calls this model a paradigm In this phase, experiments and discoveries are made but the paradigm is not challenged. CRISIS POINT: a scientist conducts an experiment which disproves a currently accepted paradigm, the old model of scientific understanding begins to collapse EXTRAORDINARY PHASE: scientists are trying to find a new set of rules to move forward with - revolution is under way FINAL STAGE: new paradigm is discovered and new set of scientific rules can be constructed

4.2.4. Definitions Normal science: Regular work of scientists theorising, observing, and experimenting within a settled paradigm Paradigm: a pattern or model Scientific truth: Clear observations of physical reality and can be tested through observation

4.2.5. Science is fallible Scientific crisis and priority disputes Switching from one paradigm to another can be influenced by external factors (non-scientific) Can we trust scientific knowledge from scientists Scientific knowledge depends on experiments and isn't based on belief however it also depends on judgment

4.3. Knowledge in the NS is a product of a community of experts

4.3.1. When scientists prove or disprove other scientists theories this moves scientific knowledge along

4.3.2. So many different scientists were involved in the history of atomic model

4.3.3. Discoveries are still being made in this century/decade/era

4.3.4. There are still many things that are unknown to scientists and general people

5. Personal Knowledge

5.1. What is the nature of the contribution of individuals you know personally to this area, in terms of your experience?

5.1.1. Yaso: My father is a neuroscientist. He conducts experiments to learn and discover new things about certain areas of the brain. He observes things, makes hypotheses and test them. His work is peer-reviewed and published for the scientific community and general public to read.

5.1.2. Anaelle: Science teachers, they teach us about science and they contribute to the scientific knowledge of their students. Personally, all my scientific knowledge stems from what I've learned from my teachers or research tasks they've assigned

5.2. What responsibilities rest upon YOU by virtue of YOUR knowledge in this area?

5.3. What assumptions underlie YOUR own approach to this knowledge?

5.4. What are the implications of this area of knowledge in terms of YOUR individual perspective?

5.5. Consider the WOKs in relation to your experiences, how have these affected what and how you know in this AOK?

5.5.1. Jasmine: This AOK does not rely on intuition nor emotions due to the conventions that are put in place, hence going against some WOK

5.5.2. Anaelle: Reason is the WOK that dominates in the AOK, as science depends on reason, experiments, proving theories.