ECOTOURISM : Evolution & Trends

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ECOTOURISM : Evolution & Trends by Mind Map: ECOTOURISM : Evolution & Trends

1. Types of environmental education within the protected and non-protected areas - education in terms of species and genetic diversity which takes the form of simple observation and in-depth learning. - education in terms of ecosystem diversity and how to minimise the conflict of environmental functions derived from tourism activities.

2. 2. Activities in terms of human & wildlife : ~ consumptive use (nature walks) ~ non-consumptive use (hunting) ~ low consumptive (animal park)

3. 1. (Ziffer, 1989:6) 'Ecotorism is a form of tourism inspired primarily by the natural history of an area. Visits relatively undeveloped areas in the spirit of appreciation participation and sensitivity.'


4.1. 1. Global estimates revealed that in Australia and New Zealend, 32% of visitors search for the scenery, wild plants, and wildlife, as part of their trip. 2. In Africa, 80% of tourists who visited countries in this continent named wildlife as a primary motivational Attribute. 3. North America, 69-88% of the Eropean and Japanese travellers considered wildlife and bird-watching to be the most important attributes of their visits.

4.2. On this point, it has been noted that it is more feasible to threat ecotorism as a spectrum with a variety of products rather than attempting to define ecotorism from a spesific stance or products (Wight, 1993a, b). More specifically, it was claimed that the spectrum included both (Wight, 1995b: 57):

4.2.1. Supply factors: (nature and resilience of resources; culturalor local community preferences type of accommodation)

4.2.2. Demand factors: (Types of activities and experience; degree of interest in natural or cultural resources; degree of physical effort)

5. Natural-Based Component

5.1. Activities & The Natural-Based Component

5.1.1. Sustainable Management Component Emphasis on sustainability recognises the ecological & cultural element as a key activity from ecotourism . 1. Environmentel Impact Direct Benefits : - provides incentive for restoration & conversion of modified habitats Indirect Benefits: - space protected because of ecotourism provided various environmentel benefits Direct Costs : - rapid growth rates - idea that all touris induces stress Indirect Costs : - fragile area may be exposed to less benign of tourism 2. Economic Impact Direct Costs : - ongoing expenses (promotion ,wages) Indirect Costs : - opportunity costs Direct Benefits : - creation of direct employement opportunities Indirect Benefits : - indirect revenues form ecotourist (high multiplier effect) 3. Socialcultural Impact 4. Education Impact

5.1.2. Direct Costs : - imposition of elite alien value system Indirect Costs : - potential resentmen & antagonism of locals Direct Benefits : - spiritual element of experiences Indirect Benefits : - option and existence benefits

5.1.3. 1. Three main categories - activities dependent on nature (i.e, bird watching) - activities enhand by nature (i.e, camping) - activities the natural setting is incidental (i.e ,swimming)

5.2. 1. Market size of the ecotourism reffer to the size of the nature tourism market . i.e , the destinations of developing nations such as Central & Latin America

5.3. 2. The potential benefits that ecotourism may offer marginal local economics. i.e, as ecotourism has develop in these tradisional tropical regions

5.4. 3. Three main in natural-based component : - nature of experience -style of this experience (different product element) - location of the natural-based tourism experience


6.1. There were a few concrete studies evaluating the definitional perspecrive of ecotorism, which this paper aims to discuss. In examining these issues the discussion centres around two main themes: the definitional frameworks of ecotorism; and the natural-based, sustainable and educational component of ecotorism.


7.1. Ecotorism was first defined as travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objective of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural menifestations (both past and present) found in this areas.


8.1. 2. (Boo, 1991b:4) 'Ecotorism is a nature tourism that contributes to conservation, through generating funds for protected areas, creating employment opportunities for local communities, and offering environmental education.'

8.2. 3. (Foresty Tasmania, 1994:ii) 'Nature-based tourism that is focused on provision of learning opportunities while providing local and regional benefits, while demonstrating environmental, social, cultural, and economic sustainability'

8.3. 4. (Richardson, 1993:8) 'Ecologically sustainable tourism in natural areas that interprets local environment and cultures, furthers the tourism' understanding of them, fosters conservation and adds to the well-being of the local people.'

8.4. 5. (Figgis, 1993:8) 'Travel to remote or natural areas which aims to enhance understanding and appreciation of natural environment and cultural heritage, avoiding damage or deterioration of the "environment and the experience for others".'

9. Education/Interpretation Component

9.1. -The education characteristic of ecotourism was claimed to be a key element which distinguished it from other forms of nature-based tourism.

9.2. Ecotourism purposes a situation specific model appeared to take place in three phases -pre-contact -contact - post-contact

10. Conclusion and Trends

10.1. -The term ecotourism emerged in the late 1980s as a direct result of the world’s acknowledgment and reaction to sustainable practices and global ecological practices.

10.2. Three common components: -natural-based component -sustainable management component -educational/interpretation component

10.3. Three components of ecotourism -it has to remain an attractive form of tourism embodied with sustainable and educational principles. -the sustainable monitoring practices of ecotourism components -also been highlighted with regards to the operationalised aspects of ecotourism.