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EVOLUTION (1) by Mind Map: EVOLUTION (1)

1. Scientific method/ characteristics of life/ skills of a scientist. ch 1&2

1.1. The scientific method is a method of procedure with systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.

1.2. Scientific knowledge is a constantly changing body of observations many scientific “facts” of the past are known to be false today, such as when they know the earth was flat and the sun revolved around the earth knowledge and science is constantly evolving , new discoveries are being made and new theories are born. with the skills of a scientist and scientific method we recognise that today.

1.3. As knowledge grows facts change

1.4. The scientific method has evolved over the years when scientist find out new information and realise new things. The scientific method is observing and stating a problem, forming a hypothesis, testing hypotheses, recording and analyzing data, forming conclusion and replicating the work

1.5. Supports the idea of evolution because it shows scientists go through many steps to confirm idea so we know they aren't just making it up.

1.6. Idea of the The characteristics of life has evolved today the characteristics of life is that living things are made up of one or more units called cells, they reproduce, they grow and develop, they obtain and use energy and they respond to their environment. In the past they didn't know all this information so with more information the characteristics of life has gotten larger, more informed and therefore evolved

1.7. The characteristics of life contribute to the idea of evolution it helps recognise that living things have not evolved from non living things.

2. Cell structure and function ch 5

2.1. Prokaryotes are single celled microorganisms which were the first living things on earth

2.2. Evolutionary biologists generally agree that humans and other living species are descended from bacteria like ancestors. called eukaryotes, also gave rise to other animals, plants, fungi and protozoans. This supports the idea of evolution because it shows many things evolved from the first living things on earth.

2.3. The cell theory states that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things and all cells come from preexisting cells which shows they have evolved.

2.4. The cell theory has evolved overtime, at the beginning the scientist didn't have much information about the cell but with more information their idea of the cell has evolved and has become more informed with every part of the cell that is discovered

2.5. Present-day cells evolved from a common prokaryotic ancestor along three lines of descent, giving rise to archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes.

3. Taxonomy ch 15

3.1. science knowledge about living things has become larger, the two kingdom classification system of plants and animals proposed by Linnaeus needed to be continuously changed and more stuff has needed to be incorporated with new knowledge it has evolved from a small branch of science concerned with classification to a larger one with more information.

3.2. Taxonomy is a way of classifying organisms based on similarities between different organisms. Scientists looked at the characteristics that each organism has in common. With the information they found they were able to find the common ancestry of the organisms.

3.3. Taxonomy contributes to the idea of evolution because it shows which organisms other organisms are related to which could be ones they've evolved from.

3.4. In taxonomy scientists such as Darwin classified organisms by using a degree of evolutionary change, he looked at how much the organism has evolved.

3.5. Evolution refers to a slow, gradual and continuous process by which the previously existing organisms develop into existing living organisms. Taxonomy shows which animals are related in their classification groups which shows how they've evolved

4. Evolution ch 13&14

4.1. Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. Its any change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population

4.2. Scientists have accumulated considerable evidence to show organisms alive today have been produced by a long process of change over time

4.3. Darwin called fitness the physical traits and behaviours that enable organisms to survive and reproduce in their environment. Organisms with fitness are organisms that are able to evolve into the animals around today.

4.4. All species have shared, or common ancestors, this is called common descent and provides evidence that all organisms evolve from common ancestors

4.5. Fitness, common descent and adaptation all contribute to evolution and provides evidence that organisms evolved from common ancestors

4.6. Fossils also provide evidence of evolution, looking at fossils from many years ago, scientists can identify homologous structures between organisms today and in the past.

4.7. Chapter 13&14 provide lots of evidence that evolution has occured throughout lifetimes. It contributes to the idea of evolution by providing evidence of change

5. Viruses, bacteria & disease ch 17

5.1. A virus is a non celluar particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells

5.2. Viruses contribute to evolution because they can attack organisms causing the ones to survive, grow and evolve.

5.3. Viruses undergo evolution and natural selection, just like cell-based life, and most of them evolve rapidly.

5.4. When viruses face an obstacle to infecting the cells they normally infect, the virus can evolve to successfully invade them again

5.5. A disease is any change, other than an injury, that interferes with normal functioning of the body.

5.6. Bacteria is a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some which can cause disease.

5.7. Bacteria can evolve For example, bacteria can develop drug resistance by evolving a mutation that breaks down the drug.

5.8. Viruses, bacteria and diseases help evolution carry on with natural selection, the viruses attack cells in organisms which can cause them to die and let the healthy survive and evolve.

6. Vertebrates ch31, mammals ch33

6.1. Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone

6.2. The earliest vertebrates lived more than 500 million years ago. As different fish appeared, they evolved traits such as a complete vertebral column, jaws, and a bony endoskeleton.

6.3. Amphibians were the first tetrapod vertebrates as well as the first vertebrates to live on land.

6.4. Mammals and birds both evolved from reptile-like ancestors. The first mammals appeared about 200 million years ago and the earliest birds about 150 million years ago.

6.5. Mammals are endothermic animals, they can generate substantial body heat internally most species are experts at maintaining a constant temperature

6.6. More than 252 million years ago, mammal ancestors became warm-blooded to survive mass extinction which has evolved them into the endothermic animals they are today

6.7. Vertebrates and mammals contribute to the idea of evolution because they provide evidence that they have evolved from the invertabrate reptiles to the vertabrate mammals they are today