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4.7-Models by Mind Map: 4.7-Models

1. Hypodermic syringe model

1.1. Audience is passive. Direct link between violence shown in the media and real acts of violence. Ppl passively absorb info from media, they are injected with the content

1.1.1. Copy cat violence Bandura: showed that when children were exposed to violent TV models they became more violent themselves Deterministic: Children could have been violent due to other things besides media James Bulger: He was tortured, kidnapped and killed by 2 boys. The violent acts committed were replicas of acts from child's play 3 Could have been influenced by home background, one of the boys had alcoholic parents, the other had siblings in care. Columbine shooting: 2 boys shot up a school called columbine high school, were though to be influenced by Marilyn manson Could have been influenced by bullying, the availability of guns in america etc

1.1.2. Desensitisation Led to the 9pm water shed-violent acts cant be shown before 9 on TV Some sociologists argue that depictions of violent acts can reduce violence through catharsis process by which people are no longer affected by violent acts in the media-they even side with villans. Due to being constantly shown violent acts in a drip drip effect

1.1.3. Non violent acts-the media can cause people to copy non violent acts that are equally as harmful Eating disorders,stalking, depictions of femininity/masculinity etc

2. Uses and Gratifications model

2.1. Model shows that audience is active-it actively chooses what to use in the media to satisfy certain needs

2.1.1. Diversion: media is used as a distraction from real life Watching fifty shades of grey to distract from lack of romance in your rela life Disabled people using virtual reality as a distraction from their inabilities

2.1.2. Personal identity: Media is used to provide info to construct identity Teenager who suspects they are gay using hollyoaks to make decisions about their sexuality

2.1.3. Surveillance: Media used to obtain info about certain issues News around the world

2.1.4. Personal relationships: Used to compensate for lack of community Elderly people watching soap operas to compensate for lack of family relationships

2.1.5. Evaluation: Marxists evaluate this by arguing that the media has set an agenda so people don't have all the chose they can to use the media as they please.

3. Cultural effects model

3.1. The audience is active because the it is made up of people with different ideas,beliefs and identities. This level of activeness is within confined limits

3.1.1. The audience is made to think that they have choice but in relaity they dont They are made to accept the ideology the media transmist by making it seem as if its common sense They are made to accept the ideology by making it seem as if they have accepted it because they chose to

3.2. The media transmits capitalist ideology for 2 reasons

3.2.1. Economic: Used to increase profit

3.2.2. Due to accidental background of media owners who just happen to belong to the ruling class

3.3. The media transmist capitalis ideology in a drip drip effect

3.3.1. Slowly transmit the idea that the working class/ethnic minority are criminal,threatening or not important

3.4. Evaluation: Media transmit content because that's what the audience wants, implies that marxists are the only ones who can see through capitalist methods.

4. Selective filter model

4.1. Implies that the media audience is active- in order for the media to have an influence on its audueicne it must go throgh 3 filters-each filter involves a degree of choice

4.1.1. Selective exposure Media content has to be exposed to the audience- ppl have to actually see, read or hear it-ppl can choose to

4.1.2. Selective perception People have to either reject or accept the media content based on their perception of the world-people can choose to

4.1.3. Selective retention Audience has to be constantly exposed to the media content-ppl can choose to

4.2. Evaluation-choice is exaggerated

5. 2 step flow model

5.1. Audience is active-media content has to go through 2 steps for it to have an impact on the audiencce

5.1.1. It goes through the opinion leader first-the leader interprets the content and voices it to their followers

5.1.2. Followers can either reject or accept what their opinion leader has said

5.1.3. People can choose who their opinion leaders are-the impact of media content is affected by personal relationships

5.2. Evaluation- not everyone has an opinion leader, the opinion leader may already be desensitised, people may still passively accept what their opinion leader has said