Introduction to TAM

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Introduction to TAM by Mind Map: Introduction to TAM

1. Definitions of Tourist Attraction

1.1. British Tourist Authority (2002) - Permanent established excursion destination - Public access for entertainment, interest and education - Open to public without prior booking - Capable of attracting day visitors or tourists

1.2. Pearce (1991) - Specific human or natural features - Natural locations or characteristics, objects or man-made constructions - Special attraction for tourists as well as local residents - Push and pull factors based on appealing attributes of destination

1.3. Class Definition Are single units, individual sites or clearly defined small-scale geographical areas that are accessible and motivate large numbers of people to travel some distance from their homes, usually in their leisure time, to visit them for a short, limited period

2. Scope of TAM

2.1. From.... Historical Sites (St. Peter Basilica in Vatican) National Monuments (Banff National Park in Alberta in Canada) Modes of Public Transport (Mass Rapid Transit in Singapore) Picturesque Locations (King’s Cross Station in London)

2.1.1. Commonalities... - Offers free public access - Viewed as ‘must visit’ locations - Need not necessarily be functional

3. Other Issues

3.1. Visitor Attractions and Tourist Attractions

3.1.1. Visitors Include all types of travelers engaged in tourism, may include: - International Visitors (<12 months) - internal visitors (domestic <12 months) - same day visitors (<24 hours)

3.1.2. Travelers: Any person on a trip before two or more countries or between two or more localities within his/her country of usual residence

3.1.3. Tourists: Visitors who stay in the country visited for at least 24 hours for business or leisure or other reasons e.g. visitors on a two week vacation

3.2. Attractions and Destinations

3.2.1. Attractions: Single units, individual sites or small and easily delimited geographical areas based on a single key feature e.g. balcony of Europe in Spain

3.2.2. Destinations: Larger areas that include a number of individual attractions together with the support services required by tourists e.g. Costa del Sol in Spain

3.3. Attractions, Support Services and Facilities

3.3.1. Tourism facilities such as hotel, restaurants, transportation systems can also be attractions. However, more attractions are developing such support services and tourism facilities i.e. Disney Land and Resorts World, Jumbo Seafood

3.4. Attractions and Activities

3.4.1. Attractions are a resource that provides the raw material on which the activity depends. Some attractions are a resource for a number of different activities. E.g. Waterfront Promenade is a resource for the activity of scenic walking

4. Classifications

4.1. Types of Tourist Attractions

4.1.1. Natural Environment: Such attractions were not intended for tourism. As such, tourism is viewed as a negative aspect, causing stress and damage to the surroundings. E.g. Niagra Falls, Banff National Park

4.1.2. Human-made buildings and structures for other purpose than attracting visitors: Not originally intended for tourism, but attract substantial numbers of visitors who use the leisure amenities such as places of worship and admiring artwork E.g. St. Peter Basilica in Vatican, British Museum in London

4.1.3. Human-made buildings and structures for attracting visitors: They are purposely built to accommodate visitor needs and wants E.g. Theme Parks such as Disney Land, Casino such as Marina Bay Sands Singapore

4.1.4. Special Events: Where tourism is viewed as positive as it contributes to the profitability and popularity of the destination E.g. Cirque du Soleil, San Fermin Festival

4.2. Ownership

4.2.1. Public e.g. government (historic building), local authorities (country park), nationalized industries (museum)

4.2.2. Private e.g. commercial organizations such as zoo

4.2.3. Voluntary e.g. trusts and charities such as heritage centre

4.3. Primary and Secondary Attractions

4.3.1. Primary Attractions Main reason for taking a trip Visitors spend most of the time here, as it is vital resource for a preferred activity or to enjoy all its elements and obtain value for money Has entrance fee E.g. beach, theme park

4.3.2. Secondary Attractions Places visited on the way to and from the primary attraction Role is to break the long journey and provide an opportunity for eating and drinking or give the trip some variety E.g. picnic site, market

4.4. Target Markets (customer oriented) Definition: a particular group of consumers at which a product or service is aimed For tourist attraction: a group of visitors who are willing to visit the tourist attractions Subgroups may include age, gender, stages in life cycle, social class, geographical area, type of travel, transportation, season, personality and lifestyle

4.5. Benefits Sought (customer oriented) Definition: things visitors expect from visiting the tourist attraction Examples are status, nostalgia, learning, economy and value for money, good service, a variety of on site attractions, easy accessibility, clean environment, exercise, obtaining a suntan, souvenirs, excitement, entertainment