Katherin, Grammar, udec

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1. STEP 4: Studentes modify and add rulers as necesssary.

2. Example: Chris is taller than Jhon. I want to have a more powerful computer.

3. English tenses

4. What is grammar?

4.1. Grammar describes how we combine, organise and change words and parts of words to make meaning. We use rulers for this description.

5. Parts of speech

5.1. Noun

5.1.1. Proper nouns Refer to namer of specific people, places or organizations. Examples: Italy, Mary, November.

5.1.2. Common nous Examples: Dog, Book, Sub topic. Refer to people, places in general

5.1.3. Countable nouns Examples: Six dollars, A dog, etc.

5.1.4. Uncountable nouns Examples: Money, electricity, etc.

5.1.5. Collective nouns It denots a group of individuals Examples: Family, boss, etc.

5.1.6. Compound nouns Acts as a single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns Examples: Bus stop, mother in law, football, etc.

5.2. Numeral

5.2.1. Ordinal numbers

5.2.2. Cardinal numbers Examples: Zero, one, two, three

5.2.3. Multiplicative adverbs Examples: Once, twice, thrice

5.2.4. Dates

5.2.5. Fractions and demicals Example: 1/6 is read as "one sisth"

5.3. Verb

5.3.1. Full verb Transitive verb Example: Jenna brings Mrs. Smith lunch everyday Intransitive verb Example: The bomb exploted in the city

5.3.2. Linking verbs Have No object, Link two parts of a sentence. Example: Mary is a nurse

5.3.3. Modal verbs Examples: Can, should, must, etc.

5.3.4. Participle Present Often refered to as the "ing" from of a verb, such as singing, swimming. Past Forms like wanted, broken, started, begun, etc.

5.4. Pronoun

5.4.1. Personal pronoun Subject I You he, she, it We They Object Me You Him, her, it Us You Them

5.4.2. Nominal possessive pronoun Mine Yours Theirs Ours His, her´s, its

5.4.3. Posessive pronoun Adjectival possessive pronoun My Your His, her, its our Their

5.4.4. Demostrative pronoun Used to show, indicate or point to a thing or things. Examples: This, that, these, those.

5.4.5. Reflexive pronoun

5.5. Used to refer back to the sentence or clause. End in "self"(singular or "selves"(plural)

5.5.1. Examples: Myself, yourself, himselft, herselft, itselft, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

5.6. Adjective

5.6.1. Used to describe a person or thing. Example: A green car, a dark sky, etc. Comparative Used to describe the difference between two things Superlative Used to describe the extreme quality of the one thing in a group of things.

5.7. Adverb

5.7.1. Used to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Used to modify a phase, clause or sentence. Manner Example: He speaks slowly. Place Example: Please sit here. Time Example: He came yesterday. Degree Example: She entirely agrees with him.

5.8. Article

5.8.1. Used to define a noun as specific or unspecific Definite article Indefinitive article

5.9. Preposition

5.9.1. Simple prepositions Examples: In, on, at, over, under, etc.

5.9.2. Compound prepositions Examples: Without, within, inside, into, behind.

5.9.3. Double prepositions Examples: Out of, outside of, etc.

5.9.4. Participle prepositions Examples: Concerning, considering, etc

5.9.5. Phrase prepositions Examples: Cbecause of, with regard to, on behalf, etc.

5.9.6. Used to join two parts that aregrammatically equal. Example: And, but, ot, nor, etc.

5.10. Conuunction

5.10.1. Coordinating conjunctions

5.10.2. Subordinating conjunctions Used to join a subordinate (depend) clause. Example: After, although, beacuse, if, etc.

5.11. Interjection

5.11.1. A short word or phrase that shows emotion. Example: My God, ouch, well, hey, er, etc.

6. Structure

7. Why to teach grammar?

7.1. The learner expectations argument

7.2. The rule of law argument

7.3. The discrete item argument

7.4. Curriculum

7.5. sentence machine argument

7.6. The fine tuning argument

7.7. the advance organiser argument

8. How to teach grammar?

8.1. STEP 1: Students analyze examples of correct language

8.2. STEP 2: Students create rules based on their observations

8.3. STEP 3: Students teste their rulers agaist additional examples.

8.4. STEP5: Studentes appl rulers to their own writing and speaking examples.