Cultural & Familial Factors in Special Education

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Cultural & Familial Factors in Special Education by Mind Map: Cultural & Familial Factors in Special Education

1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DISPROPORTIONALITY: (1) discipline policies and practices, (2) interventions and referrals, (3) instruction and assessment, (4) differential access to educational opportunity, (5) family and community partnerships, (6) teacher expectations and misconceptions, (7) cultural dissonance, and (8) district sociodemographics

2. Disproportionality in Special Education

2.1. Race/Ethnicity

2.1.1. 9) "Children of color—particularly African-American and American Indian youth—are identified as students with disabilities at substantially higher rates than their peers." From:

2.2. Culture

2.2.1. 10) Office for Civil Rights (OCR)'s new policy document was created to remind states, school districts, and public schools of their legal obligation to prevent discrimination on the basis of race in special education. OCR's enforcement experience suggests both over-identification and under-identification based on race are occurring in schools. From:

2.3. Language

2.3.1. 11) Students identified as culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) represent an ever increasing percentage of the U.S. student population, with English language learners (ELLs) comprising the fastest growing subgroup (Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders, Si Christian, 2005). From:

2.4. Socioeconomic Status

2.4.1. 12) Cross-nationally, boys outnumber girls from low-SES families. From:

3. Culturally Responsive Practices acknowledge the presence of culturally diverse students and the need for these students to find relevant connections among themselves and the subject matter and the tasks teachers ask them to perform.


3.1.1. 13) Cultural-based instruction

3.1.2. 14) Explicit instruction in linguistic & behavioral codes

3.1.3. 15) Culturally congruent interaction

3.1.4. 16) Utilize instructional scaffolding

3.1.5. 17) Cooperative learning

3.1.6. 18) Capitalize on students cultural styles and strengths

3.1.7. 19) Legitimize students’ real life experiences

3.1.8. 20) Link students' histories & worlds to the subject matter

3.1.9. 21) Provide students with opportunities for positive social interaction

3.1.10. 22) Good classroom organization & management

3.1.11. 23) Provide opportunities for affective stimulation & opportunity for males

3.1.12. 24) Investigative learning methods

3.1.13. 25) Content relevant to students’ culture & life experiences

4. Working with Families which are Culturally & Linguistically Diverse


4.1.1. 26) Host events and activities that bring parents and families into the school

4.1.2. 27) Communicate with parents frequently, using a variety of methods

4.1.3. 28) Create a warm, respectful, and welcoming school environment

4.1.4. 29) Be flexible in accommodating parents and families

4.1.5. 30) Provide a variety of resources for parents

4.1.6. 31) Support parents in helping their children at home

4.1.7. 32) Implement “Families and Schools Together,” a program to encourage parents to foster imagination-based play with their kids and support parent-to-parent socialization.

4.1.8. 33) Host a “Discovery Night” where parents, students and teachers learn together, in an interactive way, about a topic of universal interest.

4.1.9. 34) Hold a Parent University or Parent Academy to train parents in leadership skills.

4.1.10. 35) Have PTA meetings that include students so parents and students can learn together.

4.1.11. 36) Include parents and students on faculty committees.

4.1.12. 37) Organize a “Community Day” at which families provide volunteer time

4.1.13. 38) Promote family activities like “Game Night.”

4.1.14. 39) Offer an after-school activities program.

4.1.15. 40) Arrange for an “International Night” to showcase different cultures.


4.2.1. 41) Incorporate Minority Students' Language and Culture into the School Program

4.2.2. 42) Encourage Minority Community Participation as an Integral Component of Children's Education

4.2.3. 43) Allow Students to Become Active Generators of Their Own Knowledge, Using their Own Cultural Ideals

4.2.4. 44) Use an Advocacy Orientation in the Assessment Process

4.2.5. 45) Offer materials in other languages for parents of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students

4.2.6. 46) Inform parents about and invite them to Special Education Advisory Committee Meetings.

4.2.7. 47) Send letters to parents or offer information online but follow up with personal contact to ensure effective communication.

4.2.8. 48) Have teachers or students write out homework assignments and/or daily progress reports for parents to sign to ensure parents are aware of assignments and are able to monitor their child’s learning at home.

4.2.9. 49) Deliver weekly reports of progress and suggested home follow-up to parents of students who are receiving speech, physical, or occupational therapy services.

4.2.10. 50) Inform parents about and assist them in using online classrooms.

4.2.11. 51) . Support parents’ involvement in policy decision-making, such as dress codes and grading.