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1. Gangways should be on each side of structure

2. Handrails, staircases, exit ways, passageways, gangways and barriers should comply with legal and other requirements

3. Evenly distributed exits from a structure to evacuate it in an emergency without endangering the lives of spectators.

4. Gangways should not be less than 1.2m in width

5. 600mm deep (without backrest)

6. Materials

6.1. Small Seating Structures

6.1.1. Scaffolding

6.2. Made from

6.2.1. Steel

6.2.2. Aluminium

6.2.3. Plywood

6.2.4. Textiles, paints

6.2.5. Plastic components

6.3. Large Seating Structures

6.3.1. standard prefabricated components

7. Types of Grandstands

7.1. Grandstands

7.1.1. larger

7.1.2. complex seating system

7.1.3. basic bench seating

7.1.4. multi-tiered

7.1.5. can feature a covered bandstand

7.2. Stadium Bleachers

7.2.1. smaller

7.2.2. basic

7.2.3. versatile

7.2.4. raised tiered rows of benches

7.3. Arena Bleachers

7.3.1. hockey rinks

7.3.2. galvanized steel framework

7.3.3. variety of seating options

7.4. Telescopic Pool Bleachers

7.4.1. galvanized steel

7.4.2. resistant to high humidity

7.4.3. durable

7.4.4. versatile

7.4.5. easily expanded

7.5. Transportable Bleachers

7.5.1. versatile

7.5.2. can be hitched for transportation

7.5.3. standard permanent angle frame bleachers

7.6. Tip & Roll Bleachers

7.6.1. indoor auxiliary seating

7.6.2. non-marring rubber foot pads

7.6.3. lightweight aluminium

7.6.4. swivel casters for movement

8. Design Principles

8.1. Depends on

8.1.1. No. of spectator seating planned for

8.1.2. Seating requirement and arrangement

8.1.3. Seating areas, walkway/ gangway requirements

8.1.4. Any special equipment

8.2. Required a seating place

8.2.1. provide a minimum viewing standard

8.2.2. sufficient level of safety for the spectator body

8.3. Spectator deck

8.3.1. safe ingress and egress of spectators.

8.4. Barriers

8.4.1. perimeter of the structure

8.4.2. protection against falling.

8.5. Supporting structure

8.5.1. resist the static and dynamic forces

9. Layout Criteria

9.1. Escape from a grandstand should be designed such that its use is integrated with the site or building in which the grandstand is located.

9.2. Handrails of adequate strength & appropriate heights should be provided. All decking, aisles & steps on grandstands should be made from or covered with non-slip materials & have adequate non-slip, light coloured step nosings.

9.3. The exits should allow spectators to reach a place of safety or a final exit safely without local overloading of stairs, passageways or routes around the site or building.

9.4. Staircases or passageways within grandstands should be of even width & should not narrow into funnels

10. Spectators' Seats

10.1. Chairs

10.1.1. Premium seat Contoured seats Supportive seat backs Fitted with armrest

10.2. Bleachers

10.2.1. Advantages Inexpensive Accommodate many spectators

10.2.2. Disadvantages Uncomfortable Less popular

10.3. Folding chairs

10.3.1. Floor Mounted

10.3.2. Riser Mounted

10.4. Spectator Seat Area

10.4.1. 700mm deep (with backrest)

10.4.2. 500mm wide (with arm rest)

10.4.3. 350mm wide (without arm rest)

10.4.4. Unobstructed space of 300mm between seats

11. Design Considerations

11.1. Considered by the designer when assessing stability & associated redundancy

11.2. Free from obstruction for gangway, exit way & passage

11.3. Exit ways > 2.4m in width @ each side of structure

11.4. Meet the safety standards of permanent structures. No part of the structure shall be built over water

11.5. Adequately braced to resist wind loads & other dynamic loads & shall be maintained