SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1

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SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1 by Mind Map: SOCA2999 Research Methodology 1

1. Dimensions

1.1. Use

1.1.1. Basic definition advance fundamental knowledge topic freedom judge scientific communities criteria internal logic follow scientific procedures success result appear in reputable journal examples measurement technique scales theories

1.1.2. Applied definition solve specific policy problem help practitioner to accomplish task topic constraint by sponsor/client judge sponsor criteria uses of results success how far it can be used bring social change types action social impact assessment evaluation

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. Exploratory explore new topic generate foundation for further research answer 'what?' creative, open minded

1.2.2. Descriptive describe further on social phenomena detail relationship social setting answer 'how?' most research

1.2.3. Explanatory explain why things occur build upon exploratory & descriptive theory test extend elaborate answer 'why?' challenging

1.3. Time

1.3.1. Cross sectional one point in time simpler, cheaper

1.3.2. Longitudinal definition multiple times stability and change across time more complex types time series cohort panel

1.4. Data collection method

1.4.1. Quantitative Types Numerical data Look for patterns in numbers Test: statistical Researcher's detachment detach with sample do not know respondents Example Survey Experiment nonreactive research

1.4.2. Qualitative Detail Words/ pictures Look for pattern in written text Researcher attachment esp for anthro. build strong attachment Example participant observation in depth interview social artifact

2. Introduction

2.1. definition

2.1.1. process produce knowledge

2.1.2. systematic, valid, reliable

2.1.3. about social world

2.2. relationship between social research and science

2.2.1. science empirical specialized technique theory systematic

2.3. why social research?

2.3.1. foundation for any discipline

2.3.2. better consumer

2.3.3. better producer

2.3.4. quranic motivation people of reasons an-Nahl: 12 al-Jathiyah: 5 people who thought ar-Ra'd: 3

2.4. other sources of knowledge

2.4.1. personal experience overgeneralization selective observation premature closure halo effect fake consensus

2.4.2. experts & authorities New Topic

2.4.3. popular & media messages

2.4.4. ideological value & belief

3. Measurement

3.1. Concept

3.1.1. definition mental image/perception can be abstract

3.2. How to measure

3.2.1. Conceptualization definition imprecise term made more specific & precise

3.2.2. Operationalization definition how to measure imprecise term

3.2.3. Operational Definition explanation of abstract concept specific enough allow to measure

3.2.4. Variable Definition any concept with a measurable traits Quantifiable categorical continuous Causational Independant Dependent Intervening

3.2.5. Hypothesis definition testable statement derived from theory relationship between two variables causal hypothesis definition non-directional directional

3.3. Level of measurement

3.3.1. definition refers to a degree of precision of measurement degree: refine, exact, precise

3.3.2. purpose identify appropriate statistical test affectshow much we can learn fr our measurement limits types of indicator we can use

3.3.3. level categorical nominal ordinal continuous interval ratio

3.4. Scale & index

3.4.1. scale definition measurement tool researcher to capture intensity, purpose to measure abstract concepts example likert scale guttman scaling purpose

3.4.2. index definition composite measure adds or combine several distinct item of a concept into a single core

3.5. Reliability & validity

3.5.1. Reliablity Definition measure provides consistent result measure dependability & consistency same thing repeated under identical conditions Types stability representative equivalence improve clearly conceptualize all constructs increase the level of measurement use multiple indicators of a variable use pilot studies & replication

3.5.2. Validity Definition measure truly reflect the phenomena/concept/issue being studied measure truthfulness how well an idea fits with actual reality more difficult to achieve that realibility Types face content criterion construct

3.5.3. Reliability & validity relationship reliability is easier to achieve than validity a measure can be reliable but invalid reliability is necessary for validity

3.5.4. Importance measure ambiguous, not observable constructs to establish truthful & credible findings

4. Research Problem

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. statement of what we hope to investigate

4.2. Factors influence RP

4.2.1. sociological perspective

4.2.2. personal value

4.2.3. funding of research

4.2.4. practical problem

4.2.5. personal experience something happen to us/family

4.2.6. curiosity based on media

4.3. ways to formulate good RP

4.3.1. ask questions

4.3.2. read a lot (LR)

4.3.3. discuss with friends

4.3.4. take your time

4.4. Elements include

4.4.1. why

4.4.2. what

4.4.3. where

4.4.4. how

4.5. Considerations

4.5.1. avoid overdone topics difficult to throw new light

4.5.2. avoid controversials esp for average researcher

4.5.3. familiar & feasible resources within one's reach

4.5.4. know yourself & limitations

5. Sampling

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. select unit/subgroup

5.1.2. from population of interest

5.1.3. can infer result to chosen population

5.2. Why

5.2.1. findings cant generalize to all population

5.2.2. impossible to collect all data time consuming costly

5.2.3. avoid personal bias

5.2.4. systematic

5.2.5. increase credibility of findings

5.3. Procedures

5.3.1. population

5.3.2. sample subgroup from total population

5.3.3. sampling unit single unit of sampling population

5.3.4. sampling frame complete list of sampling unit

5.3.5. sampling ratio ratio of sample size to target population

5.3.6. sampling interval distance between sampling unit to another

5.3.7. unit of analysis empirical case type that researcher wants to observe, measure

5.4. sampling techniques

5.4.1. Probability def same probability types basic SRS systematic cluster stratified multistage

5.4.2. Non-probability def different /unknown probability types haphazard quota snowball purposive/ judgemental

5.5. Size

5.5.1. how to use statistical formula rule of thumb small population medium population large population very large population

5.6. Unit of analysis

5.6.1. definition unit from which we obtain information range from simple to complex unit from which we obtain information

5.6.2. types individuals groups institutions social artifacts

5.6.3. common mistakes ecological fallacy generalizing from more complex to simpler unit of analysis making conclusion about an individuals based on examination of organization individual fallacy generalizing from simpler tp more complex unit of analysis making conclusion about an organization based on examination of individuals

6. Data Collection Method

6.1. Quantitative

6.1.1. Survey Designing questionnaire definition definition types face-to-face interview telephone

6.2. Quantitative

6.2.1. Survey Designing questionnaire types

7. Data Analysis

7.1. Types

7.1.1. Univariate frequency distribution summary of counts of responses for the possible value on the variable report measure of central tendency (mct) representative of centralor frequent value for distribution that describes the characteristic of the whole distribution why types

7.1.2. Bivariate

7.1.3. Multivariate