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Corrections by Mind Map: Corrections

1. Development of Corrections

1.1. Invention of the Penitentiary

1.1.1. Enlightenment

1.1.1.1. a movement during the 18th century in which concepts of liberalism, rationality, equality, and individuality dominated social and political thinking

1.1.2. Prior to this, physical punishments were used

1.1.3. John Howard

1.1.3.1. called creation of hard labor where offenders would be imprisoned

1.1.3.1.1. secure and sanitary building

1.1.3.1.2. inspection to ensure that offenders followed the rules

1.1.3.1.3. abolition of fees charged to offenders for their food

1.1.3.1.4. reformatory regime

1.1.4. goals

1.1.4.1. punish and reform

1.2. Reform in the US

1.2.1. The Pennsylvania system

1.2.1.1. separate confinement

1.2.1.1.1. prisoners should be convinced through hard labor and selective forms that they could change their lives

1.2.1.1.2. solitary confinement would prevent further corruption

1.2.1.1.3. in isolation, offenders would reflect and repent

1.2.1.1.4. solitary confinement would be punishment because humans are social

1.2.1.1.5. solitary confinement would be economical because prisoners would not need a long time to repent

1.2.2. The New York System

1.2.2.1. prisoners held in isolation at night but worked during the day

1.2.2.1.1. rule of silence

1.2.2.2. contract labor system

1.2.2.2.1. inmates labor sold on contractual basis to private employers who provided the machinery and raw materials with which inmates made salable products in the institution

1.2.3. Prisons in the South and West

1.2.3.1. lacked funds to build prisons

1.2.3.2. developed a "plantation model"

1.2.3.2.1. exploited prisoners as slave labor

1.2.3.3. lease system

1.2.3.3.1. a system under which inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their lable

1.3. Reformatory movement

1.3.1. Cincinatti, 1870

1.3.1.1. National Prison Association

1.3.1.1.1. prisons should operate according to a philosophy of inmate change, with reformation rewarded by police

1.3.1.1.2. indeterminate sentences

1.3.1.1.3. proof of reformation required for release

1.4. Elmira reformatory

1.4.1. Zebulon Brockway

1.4.1.1. believed diagnosis and treatment were keys to reform and rehabilitation

1.4.1.2. mark system

1.4.1.2.1. a point system in which prisoners can reduce their term of imprisonment by earning marks or points through labor, good behavior, and educational achievement

1.5. improving prison conditions for women

1.5.1. separation of male and female prisoners

1.5.2. provision of care in keeping with the needs of women

1.5.3. the management of women's prisons by female staff

1.6. Rehabilitation model/medical model

1.6.1. improving conditions in social environments that seemed to be the breeding grounds of crime

1.6.2. rehabilitating individual offenders

1.6.3. addressing classification systems to diagnose offenders and treatment programs to rehabilitate them

1.7. community model

1.7.1. community corrections

1.7.1.1. goal was reintegrating the offender into the community

1.7.1.2. conditions of supervision may supercede rights

1.7.1.2.1. home may be searched

1.7.1.3. revocation

1.7.1.3.1. Morrissey v. Brewer

1.7.1.3.2. Gangon v. Scarpelli

1.7.1.3.3. can't just snatch a person who is on probation and throw them in jail

1.8. Crime Control model

1.8.1. greater use of incarceration

1.8.1.1. record number of people incarcerated

1.8.2. "get tough on crime"

2. Organization of Corrections in the United States

2.1. Federal Corrections System

2.1.1. Federal Bureau of prisons

2.1.2. Federal Probation and Parole supervision

2.2. State Corrections Stystems

2.2.1. Community corrections

2.2.1.1. probation and intermediate sanctions

2.2.2. State prison systems

2.2.2.1. classified by security level

2.2.2.1.1. minimum

2.2.2.1.2. maximum

2.2.2.1.3. medium

2.2.3. parole is a function of state government

2.3. State institutions for women

2.3.1. do not have as much access to programs as men do

2.3.2. generally more pleasant conditions because women are less likely to be violent offenders

2.4. Private Prisons

2.4.1. private corporations provide services to correctional institutions

2.4.2. challenges for supervision and accountability to ensure they are being run properly

2.4.3. quality of programs is not as good as state prisons

2.5. Jails

2.5.1. local facility for the detention of people awaiting trial and sentenced misdemeanants

2.5.2. Who is in jail?

2.5.2.1. less than half are white

2.5.2.2. most are males less than 30 years old

2.5.3. role of the jail

2.5.3.1. run by law enforcement agencies

2.5.3.1.1. MODULE 2 MAP

2.5.3.1.2. county sheriffs

2.5.4. inmate characteristics

2.5.4.1. little attempt to classify inmates

2.5.4.1.1. variety of levels of offenses

2.5.5. fiscal problems

2.5.5.1. overcrowded, lack programs and officers

3. Prisoner's rights era

3.1. constitutional rights of prisoners

3.1.1. Cooper v. Pate

3.1.1.1. prisoners are entitled to the protection of the civil rights act and may challenge in federal courts the conditions of their confinement

3.2. hands off policy

3.2.1. judges should not interfere with the administration of correctional institutions

3.2.1.1. ended with Cooper v. Pate

3.3. first amendment

3.3.1. right to assembly and free speech

3.3.2. Procunier v. Martinez

3.3.2.1. mail censorship with compelling government interest

3.3.3. Turner v. Safley

3.3.3.1. may restrict mail between inmates at different institutions

3.3.4. Religious Freedom Restoration Act

3.3.4.1. as long as it is reasonable, they are provided means by which they can practice their religion

3.4. Fourth Amendment

3.4.1. do not have much of a search and seizure right

3.4.2. Hudson v. Palmer

3.4.2.1. may search cells and confiscate things without suspicion of wrongdoing

3.4.3. Bell v. Wolfish

3.4.3.1. body searches are permissible to fit the institutional need when they are not used to degrade

3.4.4. Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders

3.4.4.1. neglecting to address a complication that they are aware is present

3.4.4.1.1. lack of medical care

3.4.4.2. may strip search those entering jails under minor offenses

3.5. Eighth Amendment

3.5.1. protection from punishment that "shocks the conscience of a civilized society"

3.5.1.1. beyond legitimate penal aims

3.5.1.2. totality of conditions

3.5.1.3. deliberate indifferences

3.5.1.4. treatment of individuals in prison

3.6. Fourteenth Amendment

3.6.1. Due process

3.6.1.1. Wolff v. McDonnell

3.6.1.1.1. basic procedural right in disciplinary hearings and sanctions

3.6.1.1.2. liberty is not an issue because that right has already been lost

3.6.2. Equal Protection

3.6.2.1. Lee v. Washington

3.6.2.1.1. discrimination cannot be the official policy of the prison

3.6.2.1.2. not providing different types of services for people who are of a different race

4. incarceration and prison

4.1. goals of incarceration

4.1.1. custodial model

4.1.1.1. maintaining the offenders

4.1.1.2. keeping order and security

4.1.1.3. deals mostly with retribution

4.1.2. rehabilitation model

4.1.2.1. solely rehabilitation

4.1.2.1.1. when the person is changed, they are done

4.1.2.2. rarely see a pure rehabilitation model

4.1.2.3. custodial model offers programs that encourage change

4.1.3. reintegration model

4.1.3.1. from the time they step foot in the door, we are preparing them for the day they leave

4.1.3.2. using time to prepare them for going back into the community

4.1.3.2.1. how to write a resume, look for housing

4.2. What does incarceration do?

4.2.1. incapacitation

4.2.1.1. removing the person's ability to commit criminal acts in the community

4.2.2. deterrence

4.2.2.1. make prison so no one wants to go there

4.2.3. rehabilitation (maybe)

4.2.3.1. not a huge goal but it is sometimes present

4.2.3.2. minimum sentence even if you are rehabilitated earlier

4.2.4. retribution

4.2.4.1. you do the crime you do the time

4.3. Prison as an institution

4.3.1. who are the clients?

4.3.1.1. prisoners

4.3.1.2. correctional officers

4.3.1.3. community

4.3.2. why might this be a problem?

4.3.2.1. our most direct client population does not want to be there

4.3.2.2. changes dynamic of relationship

4.3.2.2.1. we cannot select our clients

4.3.2.3. must rely on the client for

4.3.2.3.1. daily operation

4.3.2.3.2. compliance

4.3.2.3.3. housework, maintenance, librarians

4.3.3. as long as the prisoners are engaged, they are less likely to act out

4.4. challenges

4.4.1. defects of total power

4.4.1.1. while there may be a power influence, we depend upon inmates to maintain the facility

4.4.2. rewards and punishments

4.4.2.1. limits

4.4.2.1.1. what you can reward has a cap

4.4.2.1.2. only certain level of punishment

4.4.3. exchange relationships

4.4.3.1. platform for abuse

4.4.4. inmate leadership

4.4.4.1. people create their own subculture within prison

4.5. Who are correctional officers

4.5.1. largely white males

4.5.1.1. Who would have thought?

4.5.2. weapons

4.5.2.1. no weapons inside prison

4.5.2.1.1. there is an armory to provide necessary means outside of the prison

4.6. use of force in correctional institutions

4.6.1. self defense

4.6.2. defense of another

4.6.3. upholding prison rules

4.6.4. prevention of a crime

4.6.5. prevention of escape

5. Doing time

5.1. who is in prison

5.1.1. overwhelmingly male

5.1.2. race and ethnicity is disproportionate to general population

5.1.3. much older

5.1.4. more violent offenses in state prisons

5.2. classification

5.2.1. where is most appropriate for the offender to go?

5.2.1.1. up to the department of corrections to determine

5.2.1.1.1. external classification

5.2.1.1.2. internal classificiation

5.2.2. based upon

5.2.2.1. risk to security

5.2.2.2. education

5.2.2.3. ability to work

5.2.2.4. time until release

5.3. Special populations

5.3.1. Elderly inmates

5.3.1.1. people cost more as they age

5.3.1.1.1. health problems

5.3.1.2. programming and environmental needs

5.3.1.3. mobility

5.3.2. inmates with HIV/AIDS

5.3.2.1. drugs for this condition are not cheap

5.3.2.2. many facilities do not require testing

5.3.2.2.1. cases go unreported

5.3.2.3. programming and education

5.3.2.3.1. treatment

5.3.2.3.2. prevention

5.3.2.3.3. maintain health

5.3.2.3.4. transmission

5.3.3. Mentally ill inmates

5.3.3.1. Deinstitutionalization of mental health care

5.3.3.1.1. fewer places that are able to take people who cannot pay for care

5.3.3.1.2. increase use of prescription meds

5.3.3.2. influx if mentally ill into criminal justice system

5.3.3.2.1. cost

5.3.3.2.2. security

5.3.3.2.3. psychiatric units

5.3.3.2.4. prison environment

5.3.3.2.5. often are not given enough meds to be able to continue treatment when they run out/need to see psychiatrist and renew prescription

5.3.4. long term prisoners

5.3.4.1. different from elderly prisoners

5.3.4.1.1. can have young people serving life sentence and older people serving short sentence

5.3.4.2. transition into elderly inmates

5.3.4.3. extent of sentence

5.3.4.3.1. mental health

5.3.4.3.2. programming

5.3.4.3.3. connection to community

5.4. Prison proper

5.4.1. inmate code

5.4.1.1. rules of subculture

5.4.1.1.1. Don't snitch

5.4.1.1.2. officers are not friends

5.4.1.1.3. do your own time

5.4.1.1.4. hypermasculinity

5.4.1.1.5. stealing = bad news

5.4.2. how did this happen?

5.4.2.1. Created with prison explanation

5.4.2.1.1. experience similar occurrences and subculture is formed

5.4.2.2. Imported explanation

5.4.2.2.1. everyone in prison has committed a crime or engaged in deviance

5.4.2.3. in reality, it is probably a mix of both

5.4.3. Adaptive roles

5.4.3.1. doing time

5.4.3.1.1. just there to get through their time, pause in criminal behavior

5.4.3.2. gleaning

5.4.3.2.1. using it as a chance to change

5.4.3.3. jailing

5.4.3.3.1. cutting off from outside world

5.4.3.4. disorganized

5.4.3.4.1. no clear other role; combination

5.5. Prison economy

5.5.1. legitimate channels for goods are restricted

5.5.2. bartering system

5.5.2.1. goods such as cigarettes are used as currency

5.5.3. debt is used as a lever

5.5.3.1. debt compounds

5.6. Violence in prison

5.6.1. influential characteristics of prisons/prisoners

5.6.1.1. age

5.6.1.1.1. mature as age

5.6.1.2. race

5.6.1.2.1. facilities with higher racial division

5.6.1.3. mental illness

5.6.1.3.1. treatment issues

5.6.1.4. level of security

5.6.1.4.1. may see less ability for violence in stricter environment

5.6.2. types

5.6.2.1. prisoner - prisoner

5.6.2.1.1. relatively common

5.6.2.1.2. fights between inmates

5.6.2.2. prisoner - officer

5.6.2.2.1. prisoner attacks officer

5.6.2.3. officer - prisoner

5.6.2.3.1. officers mistreating prisoners

5.6.3. How to decrease?

5.6.3.1. adequate supervision

5.6.3.1.1. know environment

5.6.3.2. architectural design

5.6.3.2.1. plumbing, furniture

5.6.3.3. reducing availability of weapons

5.6.3.3.1. furniture

5.6.3.4. proper use of classification

5.6.3.5. avoid overcrowding

6. Probation and Intermediate Sanctions

6.1. Why community corrections

6.1.1. offenses not serious enough to permit incarceration

6.1.2. less expensive

6.1.3. recidivism rate is no worse than incarceration

6.1.4. re-entry requires supervision and support to be successful

6.2. Probation

6.2.1. John Augustus

6.2.1.1. proposed release of individual for a fee and rehabilitated them before court date

6.2.2. First statewide system in Massachusetts 1880

6.2.2.1. 21 states by 1920

6.2.2.2. 44 by WWII

6.2.3. began as a second chance

6.2.3.1. evolved into supervision and case management

6.2.3.2. philosophy

6.2.3.2.1. check in on person

6.2.3.2.2. assess needs of person and provide means

6.2.3.2.3. needs of individual

6.2.3.3. risk assessment

6.2.3.3.1. support

6.2.3.3.2. are they going to engage in criminal activity again?

6.2.4. Administration

6.2.4.1. centralized

6.2.4.1.1. state runs probation

6.2.4.1.2. combined with parole services

6.2.4.2. decentralized

6.2.4.2.1. probation agencies at county level

6.2.4.2.2. issue

6.2.4.3. BOTH work best with solid working relationships between judge and supervising office

6.2.4.3.1. MODULE 3 MAP

6.2.5. What does a probation officer do?

6.2.5.1. attend court

6.2.5.2. presentence investigation report

6.2.5.3. update or modification hearings

6.2.5.4. revocation

6.2.5.4.1. technical violation or new crime

6.2.5.5. supervision of clients

6.3. Intermediate sanctions by Judiciary

6.3.1. fines

6.3.1.1. paid directly to the court

6.3.2. restitution

6.3.2.1. some way paid to the victim

6.3.3. Forfeiture

6.3.3.1. anything acquired through illegal means is illegible for forfeiture

6.4. intermediate sanctions by community

6.4.1. home confinement

6.4.1.1. expensive and high failure rate

6.4.2. community service

6.4.3. day reporting

6.4.4. intensive supervision probation

6.4.4.1. probation diversion

6.4.4.1.1. probation was not enough

6.4.4.2. institutional diversion

6.4.4.2.1. attempt to avoid incarceration

6.4.5. boot camps

6.5. concerns of implementation

6.5.1. which agencies should handle sanctions?

6.5.2. Which offenders should be admitted?

6.5.3. net widening

6.5.3.1. should we really have a punishment for everyone?

6.5.3.2. scoop up so many people in the system

7. this entire map would be an extension on the corrections section of MODULE 1 MAP

8. Juvenile Justice

8.1. types of crimes

8.1.1. arson

8.1.1.1. most common

8.1.2. vandalism

8.1.3. status offenses

8.1.3.1. offenses because they are a minor

8.1.3.1.1. drinking alcohol

8.1.3.1.2. smoking

8.2. Puritan Era

8.2.1. looked at juveniles as miniature adults

8.2.2. Massachusetts Stubborn Child law

8.2.2.1. evil child

8.2.2.1.1. there is something wrong with the child and the family needs to take care of it

8.3. Refuge Period

8.3.1. Houses of Refuge/reform school

8.3.1.1. children require supervision and care

8.3.1.2. same criminal justice procedure as used for adults

8.4. Juvenile court era

8.4.1. creation of separate court system for juveniles

8.4.1.1. Illinois Juvenile Court Act

8.4.1.1.1. first to do this

8.4.2. Started using the term delinquent

8.5. Juvenile rights period

8.5.1. refinement for court process

8.5.1.1. Right to counsel?

8.5.1.2. Face accuser

8.5.1.3. adequate notice

8.6. Crime control period

8.6.1. harsher punishments for juveniles

8.6.1.1. waiver to adult courts

8.6.2. criminalization of children

8.6.2.1. kids are super offenders and have been bred to do so

8.7. Kids are different period

8.7.1. 2005 to present

8.7.2. rehabilitation of child and family

8.7.2.1. cannot just focus on child if they have a toxic home environment

8.7.3. studied how children develop

8.8. Categories of cases

8.8.1. delinquent child

8.8.1.1. committing crimes

8.8.2. PINS

8.8.2.1. person in need of supervision

8.8.2.2. do not have someone to take care of them

8.8.2.3. may be assigned caseworker

8.8.3. Neglected child

8.8.3.1. required care and are not receiving it

8.8.3.1.1. state steps in

8.8.4. dependent child

8.8.4.1. parent loses right or gave them up and child does not have someone to care for them

8.9. Correctional options

8.9.1. probation

8.9.1.1. 60% of pop

8.9.2. intermediate sanctions

8.9.3. custodial care

8.9.3.1. residential treatment programs

8.9.3.1.1. similar to halfway houses

8.9.4. outpatient treatment

9. Re-Entry to the Community

9.1. Institutional re-entry

9.1.1. reduce cost by moving people into the community

9.1.2. implementation of prep programs to the facility

9.1.2.1. halfway houses, work release programs

9.2. Parole

9.2.1. conditional release from incarceration but NOT from legal custody of the state

9.2.2. 3 concepts

9.2.2.1. Grace

9.2.2.1.1. allowing them to do their time somewhere else

9.2.2.2. contract

9.2.2.2.1. agree to terms of parole

9.2.2.3. custody

9.2.2.3.1. still under custody of the state

9.2.3. origins

9.2.3.1. Machonochie

9.2.3.1.1. British penal codes in Tazmania

9.2.3.2. Crofton-Ireland

9.2.3.2.1. ticket of leave transitioned to condition-based parole

9.2.4. Release mechanisms

9.2.4.1. Expiration release

9.2.4.1.1. completes max sentence

9.2.4.2. Mandatory release

9.2.4.2.1. max minus good time

9.2.4.3. discretionary release

9.2.4.3.1. parole board's decision

9.2.4.4. other conditional release

9.2.4.4.1. furlough

9.2.4.4.2. emergency

9.2.4.4.3. compassionate release

9.2.4.4.4. home supervision

9.2.4.4.5. probation

9.2.4.4.6. emergency

9.2.5. absconder

9.2.5.1. individual that has disappeared

9.2.6. challenges for parolees

9.2.6.1. few belongings

9.2.6.2. small amount of money

9.2.6.3. employment

9.2.6.4. housing

9.2.6.5. stigma

9.2.6.6. stress and sobriety

9.2.7. Parole agent

9.2.7.1. as a cop

9.2.7.1.1. keep community safe

9.2.7.1.2. enforce conditions for release

9.2.7.1.3. search without notice

9.2.7.1.4. arrest without bail

9.2.7.2. as a social worker

9.2.7.2.1. assist with housing and employment

9.2.7.2.2. build relationship for success

9.2.8. revocation

9.2.8.1. new crime

9.2.8.2. technical violation

9.2.8.3. use of intermediate sanctions to keep parolee in community