CHAPTER 6: CATALYST

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CHAPTER 6: CATALYST by Mind Map: CHAPTER 6: CATALYST

1. CATALYST VS CATALYSIS

1.1. -CATALYST is a term for a chemical compound or substance that may speed up or slow down a chemical reaction without itself being changed or consumed at any time during the reaction.

1.2. -CATALYSIS is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst

2. TYPES OR CLASSIFICATION OF CATALYST

2.1. BASED ON PHYSICAL STATE

2.1.1. GAS

2.1.2. LIQUID

2.1.3. SOLID

2.2. BASED ON THE SUBSTANCE FROM WHICH A CATALYST IS MADE

2.2.1. ORGANIC

2.2.2. INORGANIC

2.3. BASED ON HOW CATALYST WORKS

2.3.1. HOMOGENOUS

2.3.2. HETEROGENOUS

2.4. BASED ON CATALYST ACTION

2.4.1. ACID BASE CATALYST

2.4.2. ENZYMATIC

3. CATALYST REGENERATION

3.1. CATALYST REGENERATION is a process that renews catalysts, making them reusable after the initial usage. Regenerated catalyst are used in several processes such as reforming, which is refinery process that converts low octane products into high octane products (reformates)

3.2. REGENERATED CATALYST can used for both steam and naphtha reforming. other refining process that make use of regenerated catalyst include hydrogenation, alkylation, hydro cracking, hydro-desulfurization and hydro-treatment

4. CATALYST DEACTIVATION

4.1. POISONING

4.1.1. TYPE: CHEMICAL- strong chemisorption of species on catalytic sites, thereby blocking sited for catalytic reaction

4.2. FOULING

4.2.1. TYPE: MECHANICAL OR CHEMICAL- physical deposition of species fluid phase onto the catalytic surface and in catalyst pores

4.3. SINTERING

4.3.1. TYPE: THERMAL- thermally induced loss of catalytic surface area, support area and active support reaction

5. REQUIREMENT FOR A GOOD CATALYST

5.1. CATALYST SHOULD HAVE A LARGE SURFACE AREA

5.2. THE CATALYST SHOULD HAVE A VARIABLE COORDINATION NUMBER, THIS DEFINES THE NUMBER OF THE NEAREST NEIGHBOURS AN ATOM OR MOLECULE CAN BIND TO. HAVING A VARIABLE NUMBER ALLOWS POTENTIAL CATALYST TO LINK TO EXTRA MOLECULES AT THE SURFACE WHEN REACTANTS ARE ABSORBED AND TO RELEASE THEM AGAIN WHEN THE REACTION IS COMPLETED

5.3. THE CATALYST SHOULD BE ABLE TO VARY ITS STEREOCHEMISTRY. THIS DEFINES THE ANGLES BETWEEN BONDS AND SO AFFECTS S THE SHAPES OF MOLECULESTHAT CAN BE CREATED

6. APPLICATION OF CATALYST

6.1. ENVIROMENT

6.1.1. catalysts effect on the environment by increasing the efficiency of industrial process but catalyst also play direct role in environment

6.2. CATALYTIC CONVERTERS

6.2.1. one of the most common of catalytic is catalyst converters

6.2.2. catalytic converters are found in automobile

6.2.3. their role is to reduce to emission of harmful gas that are results of the combustion of fuel in vehicle engines

6.3. OZONE GAS DEPLETION

6.3.1. there is catalytic role of chlorine free radicals in the breakdown of ozone. these radicals are formed by the action of ultraviolet radiation in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)