Chapter 4 - Rule Britannica! The English Empire, 1660-1763

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Chapter 4 - Rule Britannica! The English Empire, 1660-1763 by Mind Map: Chapter 4 - Rule Britannica! The English Empire, 1660-1763

1. 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies

1.1. Who was Charles II?

1.1.1. He ascended the English throne in 1660 & his time in power represents the restoration of the English monarchy

1.2. Charles II's story begins with his father, Charles I.

1.2.1. Charles I became the King of England in 1625 and married a French Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria. Henrietta was not liked by English Protestants because she practiced Catholicism

1.2.2. Protestants in English Parliament in the 1620s opposed Charles I's marriage and his connection to Catholicism.

1.2.3. Religious tension between Charles I and Parliament led to the suspension of Parliament power and authority in 1629 Charles I ruled without Parliament for 11 years The suspension of parliament ignites a civil war in England from 1642-1649 In 1649, Oliver Cromwell and Parliament forces defeat the Charles and his loyalist supporters

1.3. In 1660 after the English interregnum period, England reinstates the monarchy

1.3.1. Charles II, son of the executed king Charles I, is welcomed back to the English throne The return of Charles II is known as the Restoration

1.4. Charles II was focused on expanding England's oversea possessions

1.4.1. From 1660-1680 (approx) Charles II established and supported the Restoration colonies The Restoration colonies were: the Carolinas, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Restoration colonies began as proprietary colonies

1.5. The Navigation Acts

1.5.1. England's attempt to better control the American colonies

1.5.2. In 1660, Charles II approved the Navigation Acts which ensured a monopoly on imports from the colonies

1.5.3. Navigation Acts included the 1663 Staple Act and 1673 Plantation Duties Act Staple Act barred colonists from importing goods that has not been made in England Plantation Duties Act taxed enumerated articles exported from one colony to another

1.5.4. They were lightly enforced

2. 4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire

2.1. When Charles II died in 1685, his brother James II ascended the English throne

2.2. King James II worked to give absolute power back to the English monarchy

2.2.1. James II was greatly influenced by his French Catholic cousin, Louis XIV

2.2.2. James II practiced a strict and intolerant form of Roman Catholicism

2.2.3. His wife was Catholic When James II and his wife had a son, the potential for a Catholic heir to the English throne became a threat to English Protestants

2.3. James II applied his concept of a centralized state to the English colonies via the creation of a giant colony called the Dominion of New England

2.3.1. The Dominion of New England included Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven, and Rhode Island In 1688, New York and New Jersey were added to the Dominion of New England

2.3.2. Sir Edmund Andros was put in charge of the Dominion of New England Andros heavily enforced the Navigation Acts Andros caused tension with New England Puritans because he questioned land titles that did not acknowledge King James II

2.4. The English Whig party opposed James II and worked to overthrow the king

2.4.1. Whigs opposed James II's effort to create a centralized Catholic state and the kings religious intolerance

2.4.2. In late 1688 the Whigs were able to depose James II of power, an event they referred to as the Glorious Revolution James II fled to his cousin Louis XIV in France

2.4.3. William III (William of Orange) and Mary II ascended the English throne in 1689 Mary II was the sister of James II and Charles II

2.5. English Liberty

2.5.1. The Glorious Revolution led to an English nation that limited the power of the monarchy In 1689 the English Bill of Rights established a constitutional monarchy

2.5.2. John Locke returned to England after the Glorious Revolution In 1690 he published Two Treatises of Government which argued that government was a contract between the leaders and the people (government existed to protect "life, liberty, and property.") His ideas later influenced Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence

3. 4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution

3.1. Slavery and the Stono Rebellion

3.1.1. Under Charles II and James II, the Royal African Company maintained a monopoly on transporting slaves to English colonies In 1689, the monopoly ended as a result of the Glorious Revolution More English merchants engaged in the slave trade

3.1.2. From 1672-1713, the Royal African Company bought 125,000 captives. Approx. 20% passed away due to the horrific journey known as the Middle Passage

3.1.3. The Stono Rebellion took place in South Carolina in September of 1739 Jemmy, a literate slave, led a group of slaves to fight against white colonists Sources suggest Jemmy was introduced to Catholicism when he lived in Portugal, after being taken from the Kingdom of Kongo The rebellion resulted in the passing of a new slave code: the Negro Act of 1740 The law further restricted slaves' behavior, such as no longer being able to travel freely and making it illegal to learn to read and write

3.2. The New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741

3.2.1. New York in the eighteenth century contained many different ethnic group

3.2.2. 1 in 5 New Yorkers was a slave

3.2.3. The aftermath of the Stono Rebellion increased tension between slaves and the free population in New York

3.2.4. In 1741, thirteen fires broke out in the colony Whites that were fearful of a slave revolt like the Stono Rebellion, started rumors that the fires were started by slaves who wanted to murder whites and take over the colony British authorities interrogates roughly 200 slaves and accused them of conspiracy Brief trials at City Hall, known as the New York Conspiracy Trials of 1741, resulted in the execution of 17 New Yorkers. Thirteen black men were burned at the stake and four white men were hanged.

3.3. Colonial Gentry and the Consumer Revolution

3.3.1. The British Colonies reliance on indentured servitude and slavery resulted in the creation of a wealthy colonial class Those of the Colonial Gentry modeled every aspect of their lives on the English aristocracy

3.3.2. Colonial Gentry set themselves apart from others through the display of their wealth. A rapid increase of various consumer goods from England resulted in the Consumer Revolution Printed materials became more widely available and traveled faster throughout the colonies than before

4. 4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment

4.1. Both movements began in europe, but they advocated very different ideas

4.2. The Great Awakening promoted emotional religiosity

4.2.1. An insurgence of Protestant revivalism during the eighteenth century is known as the First Great Awakening New evangelical ministers spread a message of personal and experiential faith that rose above book learning alone. This contrasted reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin who preached a doctrine of predestination. Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation in Germany when he declared that only the Bible is the source of all faith/belief so religion is just between man and the Bible; there was no need for the Pope, bishops, priests, etc. John Calvin started Calvinism in France during the Protestant Reformation. Calvinism said that everyone is going to hell but only a few chosen ones, graced by God, will go to heaven. The chosen ones are going to heaven no matter what. Also, you can tell who is chosen or not; the chosen ones will be good, upright citizens. Individuals had agency in their own salvation through the acceptance of Christ. This changed the everyday realities of women, children, and people at the lower end of the social spectrum. The resurgence of religious reform and debate caused a divisions throughout communities in Great Britain and the English colonies

4.3. The Enlightenment encouraged the pursuit of reason in all things

4.3.1. An intellectual and cultural movement in the eighteenth century Science over blind faith; reason over superstition

4.3.2. Noteworthy Enlightenment thinkers were John Locke, Isaac Newton, and Voltaire Each questioned accepted knowledge and how ideas spread throughout society

4.3.3. Rationalism, empiricism, progressivism, and cosmopolitanism dominated Enlightenment thought Rationalism: the idea that humans are capable of using their faculty of reason to gain knowledge Empiricism: the idea that knowledge comes from experience and observation of the world Progressivism: the idea that through an individual's own powers of reason and observation, humans could make unlimited progress over time Cosmopolitanism: the idea that citizens of the world should actively engage in all aspects of society, rather than being provincial and close-minded.

4.3.4. The Freemasons advocated Enlightenment principles of inquiry and tolerance

4.4. Just like throughout Europe, English colonists debated the two ideas

5. 4.5 Wars for Empire

5.1. Colonists grew up during a time of constant warfare

5.2. Warfare was seasonal during the eighteenth century

5.3. Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) also known as the War of Spanish Succession

5.3.1. England fought against Spain and France over who would ascend the Spanish throne

5.4. War of Jenkins' Ear (1739-1742) a conflict between Britain and Spain over land between South Carolina and Florida

5.5. King George's War (1744-1748) also known as the War of austrian Succession was fought in the northern colonies and New France

5.6. French and Indian War (1754-1763) also known as the Seven Years' War in Europe

5.6.1. War between Britain and France in the New World colonies

5.6.2. Began over disagreements regarding land rights of the Ohio Company of Virginia

5.6.3. Virginian George Washington gave the command to fire on French soldiers near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania The incident ignited an imperial war between Britain and France

6. Critical Analysis Questions

6.1. 1. How did the ideas of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening offer opposing outlooks to British Americans? What similarities were there between the two schools of thought?

6.2. 2. What role did Indians play in the wars for empire?

6.3. 3. What were the effects of the consumer revolution on the colonies?

6.4. 4. What shared experiences, intellectual currents, and cultural elements drew together British subjects on both sides of the Atlantic during this period? How did these experiences, ideas, and goods serve to strengthen those bonds?