Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by Mind Map: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

1. Clinical Manifestations

1.1. Dyspnea

1.2. Tachypnea

1.3. Rhonchi

1.4. Use of accessory muscles for breathing

1.5. Weight Gain

1.6. Cyanosis/Hypoxia

1.7. Wheezing

1.8. Productive Cough

1.9. White, Gray, and yellow sputum

1.10. Chest Pressure

1.11. Frequent Respiratory Infections

1.12. Inability to exercise

2. Risk Factors

2.1. Alpha `1 antitrypsan deficiency

2.2. Pollution

2.3. Chronic Infection

2.4. Allergies

2.5. Genetic predispostion

2.6. Smoking

2.6.1. Second hand smoke

3. Diagnostics

3.1. CXR

3.1.1. Shows Hyperinflation

3.2. ECG

3.2.1. Atrial Arrthythmias

3.2.2. V. Hypertrophy

3.3. Arterial blood gas analysis

3.3.1. Increased PCO2

3.3.2. Decreased PO2

3.4. Sputum Analysis

3.5. Pulmonary Function Studies

3.5.1. Decreased Vital Capacity

3.5.2. Forced Expiration Flow

4. Incidence/Prevalence

4.1. 5th leading cause of death for men, 4th leading cause of death for women

4.2. Men have a prevalence of 11.8%, and women have a prevalence of 8.5%

4.3. More than 120,000 Americans die each year due to COPD

4.4. The 5th leading cause of death in the U.S.

5. Treatments

5.1. Cough & Deep breathing exercises

5.2. Bronchodilators

5.2.1. Albuterol

5.3. Diuretics if edema is present

5.4. Oxygen Therapy

5.5. Corticosteroids

5.5.1. Prednisone

5.6. Antibiotics

5.7. Adequate Hydration

5.8. STOP SMOKING

6. Pathogenesis

6.1. Changes in cells

6.2. Increased mucous production blocks free movement of cilia

6.3. Resistance of small airways

6.4. Hypoxemia

6.5. Narrowed or blocked airway

6.6. Decreased arterial oxygenation

6.7. Inhaled irritants

7. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Diagnosis and Tests. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/8709-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd/diagnosis-and-tests.

8. Roland, J. (2019). COPD Pathophysiology: Physical Changes, Effect on the Lungs and More. [online] Healthline. Available at: https://www.healthline.com/health/copd/pathophysiology [Accessed 6 Nov. 2019].