Network cards

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Network cards by Mind Map: Network cards

1. Memory address

2. Network cards are the physical interface between the computer and cable. It converts the data sent by the computer into a form which can be used by the network cable, transfers that data to another computer and controls the data flow between the computer and another cable. It also translates the data coming from the cable into bytes so that the computers CPU can read it. This is why a network card is an expansion card inserted into an expansion slot.

3. Network card functions the computer and the card must communicate so that data can travel between them. For this reason, the computer assigns parts of its memory to cards that include DMA ( Direct Access Memory)

4. The interface card indicates that another computer is requesting data from that computer. The computers bus transfers the data from the computer memory to the network card.

5. If the data is moving too fast for the adapter to process, they are placed in the card's buffer memory RAM. When they are temporarily stored while the data is being sent and received.

6. Indicator lights

7. Green LED shows that the card is receiving electricity

8. Orange indicates network activity (sending or receiving data) to prevent data to be sent the network card uses a transceiver

9. Transceiver transforms parallel data into serial data. This device translates

10. Preparing data

11. Buses path taken by data moving with computer

12. Multiple side-by-side paths force data to move in parallel, and not in series (one after another)

13. First buses transported 8 bit at a time. IBM's PC/AT computer introduced the first 16bit buses. Today, most buses are 32 bit. Data travels on cables in series (only one channel) moving in only one direction. The computer can send or receive data, but cannot do both at once. For this reason, the network card restructures a group of data arriving in parallel into a series ( 1 bit) data stream.

14. Digital signal transformed into electrical or optical signal which can travel over network cables.

15. Identifier

16. Card converts data and notifies the rest of the network to its address so that it can be told apart from the other network cards.

17. Mac Address defines by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer) which a sign ranges of addresses to each manufacturer of network cards.

18. Extended Identifier they are inscribed on the card's chips and as a result, each card has a unique MAC address on the network.

19. Configured setting (hardware interrupts) (IRO) (I/O address)

20. To ensure that the computer and network are compatible, the card must be suitable for the computer's data bus architecture and have the appropriate type of socket for the cable. Each card is designed to work with a certain kind of cable. Some cards include multiple interface connections ( which can be configured using jumpers, DIP switches, or software). The most commonly used are RJ-45 connectors.

21. Each cart has a unique address: MAC address assigned by the manufacturer of the card, which lets it be uniquely identified among all the network cards in the world.

22. Network card configuration settings/ Network adapters have confifuration

23. Interruption (IRQ) network cards use IRQ 3and 5. IRQ 5 is recommended (whenever available) most cards use it as the default setting.

24. Input/ Output (I/O) base address: each device must have a different address for the corresponding port.

25. Memory address this designates a RAM location in the computer. The network card uses this slot ad buffer for data entering and leaving. This setting is sometimes called the RAM start address. A network cards memory address is D8000. The last 0 is left out on some network cards. You have to be careful not to select an address already being used by another device. It should; however be noted that some network cards have no configurable memory address because they don't use the machines RAM address

26. Data transmission speed if more recent, advanced card communicates with a slower one, they still have to share the same transmission speed. Some cards have circuits for adjusting themselves to the transfer speeds of a slower card.

27. Both cards must accept and adjust to the other cards settings before data can be sent and received.

28. The card can be configured using the software. The setting has to match the placement of the jumpers or the DIP (Dual Inline Package) switches found on the network card. These settings are provided with the cards the card does not need to be manually configured but sometimes can cause hardware conflicts; when this happens it is helpful to disable the PNP option and configure the card "by hand"

29. Sending and controlling data before the sending network card transmits its data, it interacts electronically with the receiving card to resolve. The maximum size of data blocks that will be sent. Amount of data to send before confirmation. Intervals of time between partial data transmissions. Waiting period before sending a confirmation. The volume of data that each card may build up before releasing it to its CPU