Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 3: The History of Education

1.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

1.1.1. By 1820, it had become evident to those interested in education that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively.

1.1.2. The vast majority of Americans were illiterate.

1.1.3. Horace Mann led the struggle for free public education.

1.1.4. The first normal school, or teacher training school, was established in Massachusetts in 1839.

1.1.5. By 1820, the movement for education for women in the US was making important inroads.

1.2. Conservative Historical Interpretation of US Education

1.2.1. Conservative critics pointed to the failure of so-called progressive education to fulfill its lofty social goals without sacrificing academic quality.

1.2.2. Diane Ravitch argued that the preoccupation with using education to solve social problems has not solved these problems, and has led to the erosion of educational excellence. About Diane « Diane Ravitch

2. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

2.1. Pragmatism

2.1.1. Generic Notions was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism ideas were influenced by the theory of evolution and by an 18th century optimistic belief in progress

2.1.2. Key Researchers John Dewey (1859-1952) John Dewey Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Jean-Jacques Rousseau

2.1.3. Goal of Education School should be a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured.

2.1.4. Role of Teachers The teacher in no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows: rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator. The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.

2.1.5. Method of Instruction Children should learn both individually and in a group. Problem-Solving / Inquiry Method Children should start their mode of inquiry by posing question about what they want to know.

2.1.6. Curriculum Core or integrated curriculum All of the academic and vocational disciplines are used in an integrated, interconnected way.

3. Chapter 2: The Politics of Education

3.1. Definition of Educational Problems (Liberal Perspective)

3.1.1. Schools have too often limited the life chances of poor and minority children.

3.1.2. Schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority.

3.1.3. The differences in quality and climate between urban and suburban schools is a central problem related to inequalities of results.

3.1.4. The traditional curriculum leaves our the diverse cultures of the groups that compromise the pluralistic society.

3.2. Explanation of Unequal Performance (Liberal Perspective)

3.2.1. Individual students begin school with different life chances and some have more advantages than others.

3.2.2. Society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance.

3.3. Role of the School (Liberal Perspective)

3.3.1. Stresses the school's role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

3.3.2. Stress the importance of citizenship and participation in a democratic society and the need for an education citizenry in such a society.

3.4. The Four Purposes of Education

3.4.1. 1. Intellectual to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and math to transmit specific knowledge to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis

3.4.2. 2. Political to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism) to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order to teach children the basic laws of society

3.4.3. 3. Social to help solve social problems to work as one of many institutions to ensure social cohesion to socialize children into the various roles behaviors and values of society

3.4.4. 4. Economic to prepare for their later occupational roles to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

4. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

4.1. Theoretical Perspectives

4.1.1. functionalism functionalists view society as a kind of machine; where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy to make society work.

4.1.2. conflict theory In this view, the glue of society is economic, political cultural, and military power. Some sociologists argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups.

4.1.3. interactionalism Attempts to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads every day taken for granted behaviors and interactions between students and teachers.

4.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes Education is related to individuals' sense of well-being and self esteem. Schools in terms of their academic programs and policies make a difference in student learning.

4.2.2. 2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation Student cultures play an important role in shaping students' educational experiences. Schools are far more than mere collections of individuals; they develop cultures, traditions, and restraints that profoundly influence those who work and study within them.

4.2.3. 3. Inadequate Schools Schools reproduce inequalities most obviously through inadequate schools. Urban education has failed to educate minority and poor children.

4.2.4. 4. De Facto Segregation One study found that African-Americans from low-income communities who attended racially mixed schools were more likely to graduate from high school and college than similar African-American children who attended segregated schools.

4.2.5. 5. Gender Although girls usually start school cognitively and socially ahead of boys, by the end of high school, girls have lower self-esteem and lower aspiration than do boys. Traditionally, textbooks have been biased against women by ignoring their accomplishments. Most teachers are female, and most administrators are male; possibly sending a subliminal message to girls that they are subordinate to men.

5. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders in Dekalb County, AL schools

5.1.1. Alabama Senators in District Steve Livingston (R) Phil Williams (R) Clay Scofield (R)

5.1.2. House of Representatives in District Nathaniel Ledbetter (R) Tommy Hanes (R) Kerry Rich (R) Will Ainsworth (R) Becky Nordgren (R) Richard Lindsey (D)

5.1.3. Alabama Superintendent Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Dekalb County, AL Board of Education Dekalb County, AL Superintendent Jason Barnett CNP Director Teresa Clinton Chief Financial Officer Anthony Cooper Supervisor Mary Crosby Attendance Supervisor Chris Hairston Purchasing Becky Monroe Accounts Payable Sherri Holkem School Improvement Supervisor Kim Maness Federal Programs Director Jason Mayfield Assistant Superintendent Brian Thomas Assistant to Superintendent Crystal Webb

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. School Processes Process and content are interrelated. New behaviors must be learned. Team building must extend to the entire school.

5.2.2. School Cultures The school is "a social organism". Community is often maintained by the use of authority. Communities can exert pressure on school and aggravate tensions. Changing cultures requires patience, skill, and good will.

6. Chapter 7: Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Recognizes the crucial role of student's self-initiated active involvement in schools

6.1.2. Accepts differences in individual learning styles

6.1.3. Emanated from aspect's of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between child and curriculum and developmental psychologist Piaget's research :

6.1.4. Stresses the importance of relating schooling to the life experiences of each child in a way that makes education come alive in a meaningful matter

6.2. Dominant Teaching Traditions

6.2.1. The Mimetic Tradtion What is Mimetic Teaching?: A Lost Tools of Writing Excerpt based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students commonly relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication assumes that the educational process involves the relationship between the teacher and the stuent

6.2.2. The Transformative Tradition Transformative Teaching Methods defines the function of education more broadly proponents believe that the purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way

7. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Impacts on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class Education is expensive, so the situation favors wealthier families Middle and upper-middle class students are more likely to speak "standard" English which gives them an additional asset. Studies show that class is related to achievement on reading tests and basic skills tests.

7.1.2. Race Minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students.

7.1.3. Gender Despite history, females are more likely to have higher level of reading and writing proficiency than males. Males tend to outperform females in mathematics proficiency

8. Chapter 9: Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Differences Theories

8.1.1. Bowles and Gentis (1976) suggest that working-class students adapt to the unequal aspects of the class structure schooling reproduces class inequalities Schooling corresponds with boring factory line production to prepare future workers

8.1.2. Fordham & Ogbu (1986) suggests that the school success requires that African American students deny their own cultural identities and accept the white-middle class model

8.2. 4 School-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. School Financing More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts

8.2.2. Effective School Research some argue that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do poorly simply because they attend inferior schools

8.2.3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices Most research suggests that schools affect educational outcomes. There are significant differences between the culture and climate of schools in lower socioeconomic and higher socioeconomic communities.

8.2.4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping School characteristics affect performance outcomes. Students are divided into groups based off of teacher recommendations and test scores.

9. Chapter 10: Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. 2 School Based Reforms

9.1.1. School-to-work Programs The intent was to extend what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for employment. Each program was supposed to provide every US student with the following: 1. Relevant education 2. Skills obtained from structured training and work-based experiences 3. Valued Credentials

9.1.2. School-Business Partnerships School-Business Partnerships That Work: Success Stories from Schools of All Sizes | Education World There is little convincing evidence that, as a means of reform, school business partnerships will address fundamental educational problems. Some include scholarships for poor students to attend college. Corporate and business support for public schools has fallen dramatically since the 1970s.

9.2. 2 Reforms that Impact Education

9.2.1. Parent-Community Ties Parent involvement is essential to student success. The broader community too has a responsibility to assure high-quality education for all students.

9.2.2. Student-Centered Learning Climate promotes interaction among learners Students know what they are learning and why Students have some opportunity to work at their own pace and explore their own interests.