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NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY in a nutshell by Mind Map: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY in a nutshell

1. Radioactive Isotopes

1.1. These are elements that spontaneously emits energy to form a more stable nucleus; such elements are unstable

1.2. Also called radioisotopes

2. Half-life

2.1. it is the time it takes for one half of a sample to decay

2.1.1. Carbon-14 = 5,730 years

2.1.2. Cobalt-60 = 5.3 years

2.1.3. Iodine-131 = 8 days

2.1.4. Technitium-99m = 6 hours

2.2. Uses of an Element's Half-Life

2.2.1. Organ and X-Ray Imaging

2.2.2. Archaeological Dating

2.2.3. Geological Dating

2.2.4. Cancer Therapy

3. Nuclear Radiation

3.1. the energy particles or rays that are given off from a radioactive element, such as uranium, as it decays

3.2. Types of Radiation

3.2.1. Alpha Particle is a high energy particle that contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons

3.2.2. Beta Particle is a high energy electron that is formed when a neutron is converted to a proton and an electron

3.2.3. Positron also called antiparticle of a beta particle since their charges are different but their masses are the same

3.2.4. Gamma Rays are high energy radiation released from a radioactive nucleus which have no mass or charge

4. Processes

4.1. Radioactive Decay

4.1.1. the process by which an unstable radioactive nucleus emits radiation forming a nucleus of new composition alpha decay beta decay postiron emission gamma emission

4.2. Nuclear Fusion

4.2.1. occurs when two light nuclei join together to form a larger nucleus

4.3. Nuclear Fission

4.3.1. it is the splitting apart of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and neutrons

5. Radioactivity

5.1. is the nuclear radiation emitted by a radioactive isotope of the known isotopes

5.2. Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity

5.2.1. a small portable device called "Geiger Counter" is used for measuring radioactivity

5.2.2. the amount of radioactivity in a sample is measured by the following units: number of nuclei that decay per unit time - disintegrations per second. Curie (Ci) Becquerel (Bq)