Access Network Technologies

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Access Network Technologies by Mind Map: Access Network Technologies

1. DEFINITION

1.1. a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables

2. Added Bandwidth Distribution and Protection

3. APPLICATION

3.1. cable television networks

3.2. metropolitan networks

4. EXAMPLE OF WMAN

4.1. WiMAX

4.2. LTE

5. Performance

5.1. High-speed

5.2. High-sensitivity

6. Pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS)

7. provides network connectivity over wireless media

8. BER Testing

8.1. Quasi-random signal source (QRSS):

9. PON EVALUATION

9.1. XG-PON

9.1.1. G.987.1

9.1.2. 10Gbps downstream & 2.48Gbps for upstream

9.1.3. Improvement

9.1.3.1. Security Mechanism

9.1.3.2. Power Saving Option

9.1.3.2.1. Power Shedding

9.1.3.3. Enabling Mobile Backhauling

9.1.3.4. ODN enhancement performance monitoring

9.1.4. Transmission Capabilities

9.1.4.1. TDMA

9.1.4.2. Split ratio 1:256

9.1.4.3. 20km distance

9.1.4.4. Optical source: 1310nm/1490nm

10. FTTx

10.1. PON

10.1.1. APON

10.1.1.1. Built on ATM

10.1.2. BPON

10.1.3. EPON

10.1.3.1. Uses Ethernet Packet

10.1.4. GPON

10.1.4.1. High Speed and Power Saving

11. DSL (Wired)

11.1. Voice

11.1.1. PSTN/POTS

11.1.1.1. Hierarchy Architecture

11.1.1.2. Star Structure

11.2. Data

11.2.1. Symmetric

11.2.1.1. SDSL

11.2.1.2. ISDN DSL

11.2.1.3. High Bit Rate DSL

12. FSO

12.1. Outdoor Deployment

12.1.1. Smog

12.1.2. Rain

12.1.3. Snow

12.2. Indoor Deployment

13. PLC (no new wires)

13.1. How?

13.1.1. Outdoor

13.2. Asymmetric

13.2.1. ADSL

13.2.2. VDSL

13.2.3. RADSL

13.2.4. G.Lite

13.3. Network Level?

13.3.1. Medium Voltage

13.3.2. High Voltage

13.3.3. Low Voltage

13.3.4. In Home

13.4. Modulation Scheme?

13.4.1. OFDM

13.4.1.1. Definition

13.4.1.1.1. The main concept of OFDM is orthogonality of the sub-carriers. The orthogonality allows simultaneous transmission on a lot of sub-carriers in a tight frequency space without interference from each other.

13.4.1.2. Advantages

13.4.1.2.1. i.) can easily adapt to severe channel conditions without complex time dome equalization ii) Robust against narrow-band co-channel interference iii) Robust against intersymbol interference (ISI) and fading cause by multipath propagation. iv) High spectral efficiency v) Low sensitivity to time synchronization errors.

13.4.1.3. Disadvantages

13.4.1.3.1. i) High peak-to-average-power-ratio (PAPR), requiring linear transmitter circuitry, which suffer from poor power efficiency. ii) Sensitive to frequency synchronization problem iii) Loss efficiency caused by cyclic prefix iv) Sensitive to Doppler shift

13.5. Channel?

13.5.1. Shared channel like Wifi

13.6. Protocols?

13.6.1. X-10

13.6.2. CE-Bus

13.6.3. Lon-Works

13.6.4. Home Plug 1.0

13.6.5. Home Plug AV

14. Duplexing

14.1. Time division duplexing (TDD)

14.2. Frequency division duplexing (FDD)

15. Multiple Access

15.1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

15.1.1. One circuit per channel at a time

15.1.2. Channel is normally narrow bandwidth (30kHz for AMPS)

15.1.3. Transceiver complexity is lower compared to TDMA

15.1.4. Fewer overhead bits

15.2. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

15.2.1. TDMA is a multiplexing method that divides network connections into time slices.

15.2.1.1. The TDMA digital transmission scheme multiplexes three signal over a single channel

15.2.1.2. Often used to refer digital mobile phone networks

15.2.1.3. TDMA allows many users to access a single RF channel without interference by allocating unique time slots to each user within each channel.

15.2.2. TDMA Advantages

15.2.2.1. To increase the efficiency of transmission

15.2.2.2. Can be easily adapted to the transmission of data as well as voice communication

15.2.2.3. Most cost effective technology for upgrading analog to digital

15.2.2.4. It is the only technology that offers an efficient utilization of hierarchal cells structures like pico, micro and macro cells.

15.2.3. TDMA Disadvantages

15.2.3.1. Each user has a predefined time slot.

15.2.3.2. It is subjected to multipath distortion.

15.2.4. How TDMA Works

15.2.4.1. It relies upon the fact that the audio signal has been digitized where it divided into a number of ms-long packets.

15.2.4.2. It allocates a single frequency channel for a short time and then moves to another channel

15.2.4.3. The digital samples, from a single transmitter occupy different time slots in several bands at the same time

15.3. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)

15.3.1. OFDMA is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing digital modulation scheme.

15.3.2. Advantages of OFDMA is the deployment is flexible across many frequency bands with few modification to the air interfaces. It is also uses allocation with cyclic permutation which only has average interference within the cell. Furthermore, it is provides frequency diversity just by spreading the carriers all over the used spectrum. It also offers per-channel or per-subchannel power.

15.4. Spread Spectrum Multiple Access

15.4.1. Frequency Hoped Multiple Access (FHMA)

15.4.1.1. The frequency can be adjusted in a pseudorandom sequence between several discrete radio channels

15.4.1.2. Various user can use same spectrum

15.4.1.3. Slow frequency hopping system if rate of change of carrier frequency is lower than symbol rate

15.4.1.4. Fast frequency hopping system if rate of change of carrier frequency greater than symbol rate

15.4.1.5. Example: Bluetooth & HomeRF

15.4.2. Direct sequence spread spectrum multiple access (DSSS) / code division multiple access (CDMA)

15.5. Pure ALOHA

15.5.1. Does not require slots

15.5.2. Send a frame whenever there is a frame

15.5.3. Does not require global time synchronization

15.5.4. Vulnerable time of 2 x Tfr

15.5.5. Throughput is reduced by one half. e.g : S=(1/2e)

15.6. Slotted ALOHA

15.6.1. Invented to improve efficiency of Pure ALOHA

15.6.2. Require slot synchronization

15.6.3. Send frame only at the beginning of the time slot

15.6.4. Detect collision slotted if multiple nodes transmit

15.6.5. Does require global time synchronization

15.6.6. Divide time into slot Tfr

15.6.7. Throughput for slotted ALOHA is S = G x G-e

16. Bit Error Rate (BER)

16.1. Number of bit error

16.2. Error rate per unit time of the received bits.

16.3. One of the key parameters as assessment

16.4. Factors affecting BER

16.4.1. Interference

16.4.2. Increase transmitter power

16.4.3. Lower order modulation

16.4.4. Reduce bandwidth

16.5. Formula-->> Number of error / Total bits sent

17. WiMAX Quality of Services (QoS) Classes

17.1. Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS)

17.1.1. support real-time data stream issued at periodic interval

17.1.2. Example : VoIP

17.2. Real-time Polling Services (rtPS)

17.2.1. support real-time streams consisting variable-sized data packet

17.2.2. Example : MPEG video

17.3. Non real-time Polling services (nrtPS)

17.3.1. support delay-tolerant data streams consisting of variable-size data packets for a minimum data rate required

17.3.2. If the hub fails, whole network is stopped

17.3.3. Example : FTP transmission

17.4. Parameter used to describe WiMAX QoS

17.4.1. Latency

17.4.1.1. Measure in time delay in a system : time taken from initiation of sending data until it arrives its destination

17.4.2. Jitter

17.4.2.1. Measure of the variability over time of the packet latency across a network

17.4.3. Packet Loss

17.4.3.1. indicate the loss of data packets during transmission over a network

18. Network Topology

18.1. Star Topology

18.1.1. Pros

18.1.1.1. Low network traffic

18.1.1.2. Easy to troubleshoot

18.1.1.3. Easy to setup and modify

18.1.2. Cons

18.1.2.1. High installation cost

18.1.2.2. Expensive to use

18.2. Mesh Topology

18.2.1. Pros

18.2.1.1. Each connection can carry its own data load.

18.2.1.2. Fault is diagnosed easily

18.2.1.3. Provides security and privacy

18.2.2. Cons

18.2.2.1. Installation and configuration are difficult

18.2.2.2. High cabling cost

18.3. Ring Topology

18.3.1. Pros

18.3.1.1. Cheap to install and expand

18.3.1.2. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes

18.3.2. Cons

18.3.2.1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.

18.3.2.2. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

18.4. Wireless Mesh Network

18.4.1. Working Principle

18.4.1.1. Self-Configuring

18.4.1.1.1. Network automatically incorporates a new node into the existing structure without needing any adjustments by a network administrator

18.4.1.2. Self-Healing

18.4.1.2.1. Network automatically finds the fastest and most reliable paths to send data, even if nodes are blocked or lose their signal

18.4.2. Application

18.4.2.1. Hospitality

18.4.2.2. Warehouse

18.4.2.3. Education Campus

19. Radio over Fiber (RoF)

19.1. Two main categories

19.1.1. RF-over Fiber

19.1.2. IF-over-Fiber

19.2. Advantages

19.2.1. Low attenuation

19.2.2. Low cost

19.2.3. Large bandwidth

19.2.4. Future proof

19.3. Challenges

19.3.1. Modulation technique

19.3.2. Chromatic dispersion

19.3.3. Phase distortion

19.3.4. High data rate wireless link as a complimentary part of RoF

19.3.5. Expensive and complex uplink

19.3.6. Noise characterization and cancellation for combination of optical and wireless noise

19.4. Application

19.4.1. Access to dead zones

19.4.2. FTTA (fiber to the antenna)

19.5. Current technologies by using RoF

19.5.1. IF over SMF and MMF

19.5.2. RF over SMF

20. WLAN

20.1. WIreless Local Area Network

20.1.1. uses radio waves as its carrier

20.1.2. IEEE 802.11 standard

20.1.3. covers Physical and Data Link Layers

20.2. Access Point (AP)

20.2.1. act as bridge between Wireless and Wired Network

20.2.2. provides access to the Distribution System (DS)

20.3. WLAN Topology

20.3.1. Infrastructure Mode

20.3.1.1. Mobile stations (MS) is connected to AP

20.3.1.2. AP is connected to wired network

20.3.2. Ad-Hoc Mode

20.3.2.1. No AP required

20.3.2.2. A number of MS form a cluster to make a network

20.4. How it works?

20.4.1. using the same networking protocols and supporting most of the same applications.

20.4.2. specialized physical and data link protocol

20.4.3. integrate into existing network through AP which provide a bridging function

20.4.4. stay connected as it roam from one coverage area to another

20.5. advantages

20.5.1. Mobility:

20.5.2. Fast setup

20.5.3. Higher cost

20.5.4. Expandability

20.6. Disadvantages

20.6.1. Interference

20.6.2. Inconsistent connections

20.6.3. Uses more power consumption

20.6.4. Lower speed

21. Free Space Optics (FSO)

21.1. Definition

21.1.1. Also called Free Space Photonics (FSP) or Optical Wireless, refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere to obtain optical communications.

21.2. How does it works?

21.2.1. Uses laser technology to send optical signals through the air using lenses and mirrors to focus and redirect the beams and send data from one chip to another. Consists of optical transmitter and receiver

21.3. Advantages

21.3.1. no interference

21.3.2. Does not require spectrum license

21.3.3. Installation cost is lower compared to laying Fiber

21.3.4. Low power consumption

21.3.5. easily upgradeable

21.4. Disadvantage

21.4.1. support only point to point communication

21.4.2. atmospheric attenuation

21.4.3. scintillation

21.4.4. signal scattering results in multipath impairment

21.4.5. susceptible to loss & natural impediment (rain, haze, fog, obstruction)

22. Optical Fiber Technology

22.1. Definition

22.1.1. medium and the technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber

22.2. Working Principle

22.2.1. Transmit data in the form of light particles or photons that pulse through a fiber optic cable using the process called total internal reflection

22.3. Types of Fibers

22.3.1. SMF

22.3.1.1. Definition

22.3.1.1.1. Single Mode Fiber optic cable has a small diameter core that allows only one mode of light to propagate

22.3.1.2. Advantages

22.3.1.2.1. Increase bandwidth capacity

22.3.1.2.2. Better performance in long runs transmission

22.3.1.2.3. Limited Data Dispersion & External Interference

22.3.1.2.4. Fast transmission speed

22.3.1.3. Disadvantages

22.3.1.3.1. High cost

22.3.1.4. Application

22.3.1.4.1. Best choice for transmitting data over long distance

22.3.1.4.2. Used for connections over large areas such as college, campuses and remote offices

22.3.2. MMF

22.3.2.1. Definition

22.3.2.1.1. Multimode Fiber optic cable has a large diametral core that allows multiple mode of light to propagate

22.3.2.2. Advantages

22.3.2.2.1. Less expensive

22.3.2.2.2. Easier to work with other optical components

22.3.2.2.3. Allows several mode optical signals transmitted at the same time

22.3.2.2.4. Good alignment tolerances due to large fiber core

22.3.2.3. Disadvantages

22.3.2.3.1. High dispersion and attenuation rate

22.3.2.4. Applications

22.3.2.4.1. Good choice for transmitting data and voices signals over shorter distance

22.3.2.4.2. Used for data and audio/visual application in local area networks and connections within buildings or remote office in close proximity to one another.

23. LINE OF SIGHT (LOS)

23.1. signal travels over the air directly from a wireless transmitter to a wireless receiver without passing an obstruction.

23.1.1. reach longer distance with better signal strength and higher throughput

23.1.2. example of LOS

23.1.2.1. Microwave point to point communication

23.1.2.2. point to point connection between BS and SS.

23.1.3. Application

23.1.3.1. Building to building connectivity

23.1.3.2. Fiber line replacement

23.1.3.3. Wireless failover

23.2. Opposite to NLOS

23.2.1. NLOS- signal from a wireless transmitter passes several obstructions before arriving at a wireless receiver.

23.2.1.1. example of NLOS

23.2.1.1.1. Wireless connection between BS (Base Station) and SS (Subscriber station)

23.2.1.2. application

23.2.1.2.1. Public Wi-Fi

23.2.1.2.2. Campus wide broadband

23.2.1.2.3. Locations that can't be cabled

23.2.1.2.4. Stadiums and exhibitions halls

23.2.1.2.5. WiMAX

23.3. LOS vs NLOS

23.3.1. similarities

23.3.1.1. operate in both unlicensed and licensed frequencies bands.

23.3.2. difference

23.3.2.1. LOS

23.3.2.1.1. point to point

23.3.2.2. NLOS

23.3.2.2.1. point to multipoint

24. HFC Network

24.1. Why used HFC

24.1.1. To carry broadband contents (Video, Audio, Data)

24.1.2. Increase Transmission Range

24.1.3. Maintain Superior performance

24.2. Advantages

24.2.1. Reduce power consumption

24.2.2. Simplification of the maintainance

24.2.3. Increase RF bandwidth

24.2.4. Improve Reliability

24.2.5. Improve QoS and potential terminal cost reduction

24.3. Disadvantages

24.3.1. Not fully installed

24.3.2. Expensive

25. WMAN

25.1. WHAT IS WMAN ??

25.1.1. - Short form from Wireless Metropolitan Area Network - Connection of several WLAN - Has an intended coverage are

25.1.1.1. Two types of WMAN

25.1.1.1.1. Back Haul

25.1.1.1.2. Last Mile

25.2. Underwater FSO

25.2.1. Definition

25.2.1.1. FSO underwater is an optical communication technology that utilized the use of laser diode or light emitting diode, LED to transmit or receive data information, voice and video through underwater

25.2.2. Current Technology

25.2.2.1. Optical wireless

25.2.2.2. Acoustic wave

25.2.2.3. Radio Frequency

25.2.3. Medium

25.2.3.1. Laser Diode

25.2.3.1.1. Long Distance

25.2.3.1.2. Low Spectral Width

25.2.3.1.3. High Data Rate Transmission

25.2.3.1.4. High Output Power

25.2.3.1.5. High Operating Cost

25.2.3.2. Light Emitting Diode LED

25.2.3.2.1. Short Distance

25.2.3.2.2. High Spectral Width

25.2.3.2.3. Low Data Rate Transmission

25.2.3.2.4. Low Output Power

25.2.3.2.5. Low operating cost

25.2.4. Features

25.2.4.1. FSO System Length

25.2.4.1.1. 50-150 m

25.2.4.2. Attenuation

25.2.4.2.1. 0.39-11.0 db/m

25.2.4.3. Bandwidth

25.2.4.3.1. 0.8 nm

25.2.4.4. Operating Wavelength

25.2.4.4.1. 405 nm

25.2.5. Advantages

25.2.5.1. High Data Transmission

25.2.5.2. Lower Attenuation

25.2.5.3. Easy to install

25.2.5.4. Lower Error Rate

25.3. ARCHITECTURE OF WMAN

25.3.1. An outdoor, point to point WLAN

25.4. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATION WMAN

25.4.1. ADVANTAGES - Simple and easy to distinguish - Less costing than fiber-based LANs

25.4.2. DISADVANTAGES - Large area for hacker to attempt a break in

25.5. SECURITY IN WMAN

25.5.1. Security Vulnerability

25.5.1.1. No two way authentication

25.5.1.2. Weak curyptographic

25.5.1.3. Reuse TEK

26. Fttx (Fiber To The X)

26.1. Definitions

26.1.1. All possible optical fiber topologies from a telecom or cable carrier to its customers, based on the location of the fiber's termination point.

26.1.1.1. FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fiber laid all the way to the premises/home/building)

26.1.1.2. FTTC/N (fiber laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection)

26.2. Advantages

26.2.1. the demand for reliable bandwidth is crucial as more and more people begin to utilize these services.

26.2.2. Fibre to the All it mean we can provide any services Ex: Business, House, Buildings.

26.2.3. It has good speed and quality of net.

26.2.4. Fiber is often said to be "future-proof" because the data rate of the connection is usually limited by the terminal equipment rather than the fiber

26.3. Disadvantages

26.3.1. Installation costs, while dropping, are still high

26.3.2. Susceptibility to physical damage

26.4. Deployment of Fttx in Malaysia

26.4.1. Telekom Malaysia (TM) officially launched FTTH on 24 March 2010.

26.4.2. TM High Speed Broadband (HSBB) was released to end users in stages.

26.4.3. The deployment from start to the connection of the first end user to the fiber network took only 18 months, which is the fastest ever in the world.

26.4.4. The product name is UniFi and it initially offers speeds of 5, 10 and 20 Mbit/s under the VIP5, VIP10 and VIP20 brand name.The packages were later revised to UniFi Advance (30 and 50Mbit/s) and UniFi Pro (100Mbit/s).

26.4.5. The fiber network is also leased out to competitors Maxis Communications and Packet One Networks.

26.4.6. TIME Fibre Broadband which is Officially launched on 2 February 2010 is a true fibre optic connectivity to home with speeds of 100Mbit/s, 300Mbit/s, 500Mbit/s. Time offer the FTTx services to the apartment Condominium residential only.

27. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)

27.1. How does an EPON work?

27.1.1. In a EPON the process of transmitting data downstream from the OLT to multiple ONUs is fundamentally different from transmitting data upstream multiple ONUs to the OLT.

27.2. What Are EPON?

27.2.1. Ethernet passive optical networks (EPON) are an emerging access network technology that provides a low-cost method of deploying optical access lines between a carrier office (CO) and customer site

27.3. Downstream Traffic flow in an EPON

27.3.1. The data broadcasted downstream from OLT to multiple ONUs in variable-length packets of up to 1,518 bytes, according to IEEE 802.3 protocol. Each packet carries a header that uniquely identifies it as data intended for ONU-1, ONU-2 or ONU-3.At the splitter the traffic is divided into three separate signals, each carrying all of the ONU specific packets. When the data reaches the ONU, it accepts the packets that are intended for it and discards the packets that are intended for other ONUs. For example, ONU-1 receives packets 1, 2 and 3; however only two packets are delivered to end user 1

27.4. Upstream Traffic flow in an EPON

27.4.1. The upstream traffic is managed utilizing TDM technology, in which transmission time slots are dedicated to ONUs. The time slots are synchronized so that upstream packets from the ONUs do not interfere with each other one the data is couple onto the common fiber. For example, ONU-1 transmits packet 1 in the first time slot, ONU-2 transmits packet 2 in the second non-overlapping time slot , and ONU-3 transmits packet 3 in a third non-overlapping time slot. Consider the downstream traffic in EPON.

27.5. Benefits of EPON

27.5.1. Higher bandwidth : up to 1.25 Gbps symmetric Ethernet bandwidth

27.5.1.1. More subscribers per PON

27.5.1.2. More bandwidth per subscriber

27.5.1.3. Higher split counts

27.5.1.4. Video capabilities

27.5.1.5. Better QoS

27.5.2. Lower Costs: lower up-front capital equipment and ongoing operational costs

27.5.2.1. Cost reduction in the case of EPONs are achieved by simpler architecture, more efficient operations, and lower maintenance needs of an optical IP Ethernet network

27.5.2.2. Eliminate complex and expensive ATM and SONET elements and dramatically simplify the network architecture

27.5.2.3. Long-lived passive optical components reduce outside plant maintenance

27.5.2.4. Standard Ethernet interfaces eliminate the need for additional DSL or cable modems

27.5.2.5. No electronics in outside plant reduces need for costly powering and right-of-way space

27.5.3. More revenue : broad range of flexible service offerings means higher revenues

27.5.3.1. EPONs support for legacy TDM , ATM and SONET services.

27.5.3.2. Delivery of new Gigabit Ethernet, fast Ethernet, IP multicast and dedicated wavelength services

27.5.3.3. Provisioning of bandwidth in scalable 64 Kbps increments up to 1 Gbps.

27.5.3.4. Tailoring of services to customer needs with guaranteed SLAs (Service License Agreement)

27.5.3.5. Quick response to customer needs with flexible provisioning and rapid service reconfiguration.

28. FiWi Network

28.1. Free Space Optics (FSO)

28.1.1. Working Principle

28.1.1.1. Deploying either a high-power light emit-ting diode(LED) or a laser diode, while the receiver may deploy a simple photo detector

28.1.2. Importance

28.1.2.1. FSO offers high bandwidth and reliable communication over short distance

28.1.2.2. convenience

28.1.2.3. High speed

28.1.2.4. Security

28.2. Radio over Fiber (RoF)

28.2.1. Working Principle

28.2.1.1. Light is amplitude modulated by a radio signal and transmitted over an optical fiber link to facilitate wireless access

28.2.2. Importance

28.2.2.1. Low attenuation

28.2.2.2. Loe complexity

28.2.2.3. Low cost

28.2.2.4. Future proof

29. CWDM

29.1. Transmission using 18 channels (1270 - 1610 nm)

29.2. HIGHLIGHT

29.2.1. supports up to 18 wavelength channels

29.2.2. wavelength chosen from 1270 nm to 1610 nm

29.2.3. channel spacing 20 nm apart

29.2.4. cost-efficient solution for shorter distances of up to 70 kilometers.

29.3. ADVANTAGES

29.3.1. high optical fiber transmission capacity

29.3.2. small volume, low power consumption

29.3.3. good flexibility and expansibility

29.3.4. improve business quality

29.4. DISADVANTAGES

29.4.1. Less channel count

29.4.2. large channel spacing

29.4.3. low bandwidth compared to DWDM

30. DWDM

30.1. Definition

30.1.1. up to 80 (and theoretically more) separate wavelengths or channels of data can be multiplexed into a light stream transmitted on a single optical fiber.

30.2. DWDM System Components

30.2.1. Optical Transmitters/Receivers

30.2.2. DWDM Mux/DeMux Filters

30.2.3. ptical Add/Drop Multiplexers (OADMs)

30.2.4. Optical Amplifiers

30.2.5. Transponders (Wavelength Converters)

31. GPON vs HFC

31.1. Similarity

31.1.1. system use same RF video transmitter

31.2. Differences

31.2.1. System

31.2.1.1. Bandwidth

31.2.2. Operating & Maintenance Costs

31.3. Advantages of GPON over HFC

31.3.1. Smaller node size

31.3.2. Reduce operations and maintenance costs

31.3.3. Great transmission capacity with dedicated wavelengths for:-

31.3.3.1. Upstream, Downstream

31.3.3.2. Downstream cable-TV overlay

32. Peer to Peer Network

32.1. Advantages

32.1.1. Low cost

32.1.2. Simple to configure

32.1.3. User has full accessibility of computer

32.2. Disadvantages

32.2.1. May have duplication in resources

32.2.2. Difficult to uphold security policy.

32.2.3. Difficult to handle uneven loading

32.3. Where p2p network is appropriate

32.3.1. 10 or less user

32.3.2. No specialized service required

32.3.3. Security is not an issue

32.3.4. Only limited growth foreseeable future

33. Power Line Communication[ PLC ]

33.1. Definition

33.1.1. Uses electrical wiring to simultaneously carry both data and electric power

33.1.2. Usage of the power grid for control, maintenance and charging purposes by the utility commodities

33.1.3. Systems operate by impressing a modulated carrier signal on power wires

33.2. Important of PLC

33.2.1. Liberalization of telecommunication

33.2.2. New dimensions to the potential application of the electricity infrastructure

33.2.3. Growth of the internet has accelerated the demand for digital telecommunications services to almost every premises

33.3. Issues of the system

33.3.1. Impedance, considerable noise, and high attenuation

33.3.2. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

33.3.3. Transmission of data rate at Low Voltage to many subscribers also reduces the performances of data rate

33.4. Advantages

33.4.1. Allows consumers to use their already existing electrical wiring systems to connect home appliances to each other and to the Internet

33.4.2. Equalization is perfect

33.4.2.1. High-resolution digital filtering gives very flat filter response as desired

33.4.3. Processing is accurate and reliable

33.5. Disadvantages

33.5.1. Improper performance especially in long distances and in high noise environment

33.5.2. High costs of residential appliances

33.5.3. Lack of global standards

34. WiMAX

34.1. definition

34.1.1. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is a technology standard for long-range wireless networking, for both mobile and fixed connections.

34.2. elements

34.2.1. Base Station

34.2.2. Subscriber station

34.3. pros & cons

34.3.1. pros

34.3.1.1. Higher coverage range

34.3.1.2. cheaper alternative to broadband wired technologies

34.3.2. cons

34.3.2.1. LOS

34.3.2.2. high speed voice and data transfer over longer distances.

34.3.2.3. power consuming technology and requires significant electrical support

34.3.2.4. higher initial costs and higher operational costs

34.4. differences between WiMAX and WLAN(WiFi)

34.4.1. WLAN can deliver much faster speeds compared to WiMAX

34.4.2. WiMAX is meant for long range applications while WLAN is meant for short range applications.

34.4.3. WiMAX provides a much better method of bandwidth distribution compared to WLAN.